R. Thomas Palo

Learn More
Isoprenoids and phenolics, major metabolites of important browse species, are reviewed in regard to concentrations, distribution within tissues, and between species. Seasonal variation of specific substances and changes with age of the plant are also considered. The distribution of substances may affect food selection and feeding behavior of animals. Wild(More)
The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) is the natural reservoir of Puumala virus (PUUV), a species in the genus Hantavirus. PUUV is the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Factors that influence hantavirus transmission within host populations are not well understood. We evaluated a number of(More)
Birch twigs of diameter ≦1.5 mm exhibit seasonal trends in ruminant in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and in the contents of crude protein, cell walls (neutral detergent fibre, NDF), and phenolic compounds. The IVOMD is low in winter twigs, increases in spring, and reaches a maximum in early summer. Crude protein behaves similarly. On the other(More)
Puumala virus, genus Hantavirus, is the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) is the natural reservoir species of this hantavirus. We initiated sampling of bank voles at sites of recently identified human nephropathia epidemica cases and paired control sites(More)
Extracts of Scandinavian birch (Betula pendula Roth) buds and internodes of varying twig diameters have been investigated for their inhibitory effect on ruminant digestibility in vitro. The predominant inhibitory effect was observed in extracts containing the phenol platyphylloside, 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-heptan-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside.(More)
Time series analysis was performed on two data series of human nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in northern Sweden between the years 1959-1975 and 1985-2006. The analysis confirms that the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), the main reservoir species, shows regular peaks in population density approximately every fourth year. The periodicity in NE cases of(More)
In East African savanna we found that leaves of mature tree species with symbiotic N2 fixation contained lower concentrations of polyphenols than leaves of species without this symbiosis. We suggest that the root symbiosis is costly to the plant in terms of photosynthate that otherwise could be used in chemical defense. Further, a negative relationship(More)
Mountain hares (Lepus timidus L.) commonly have high proportions of birch (Betula spp.) in their winter diets, whereas European hares (Lepus europaeus) do not. The effects of a birch extract added to laboratory diets offered to mountain hares and European hares on the digestibility and sodium balance were measured. The extract added contained total(More)
The biological activity of phenolic extracts originating from winter twigs of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) was measured using the ruminant in vitro method and the nylon bag technique. Different extracts were prepared by extraction with organic solvents, removing phenols of corresponding solubility. The extract of birch twigs (diameter <1.5 mm) contained(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a human disease caused by a flavivirus that is spread by ticks (Ixodes ricinus). In 2011 and 2012, the highest TBE incidence ever was recorded in Sweden. It has been proposed that warmer spring temperatures result in higher survival of ticks and thus high incidence of TBE. Here, analyses were done of time series of TBE for(More)