R. T. Tokmakian

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A problem for climate change studies with coupled ocean-atmosphere models has been how to incorporate observed initial conditions into the ocean, which holds most of the 'memory' of anthropogenic forcing effects. The first difficulty is the lack of comprehensive three-dimensional observations of the current ocean temperature (T) and salinity (S) fields to(More)
Optimal spectral decomposition (OSD) is applied to ocean data assimilation with variable (temperature, salinity, or velocity) anomalies (relative to background or modeled values) decomposed into generalized Fourier series, such that any anomaly is represented by a linear combination of products of basis functions and corresponding spectral coefficients. It(More)
1. Overview Uncertainty in climate simulations arises from various aspects of the end-to-end process of modeling the Earth's climate. Figure 1 illustrates the parts of the climate model system that contribute to the total uncertainty. First, there is uncertainty from the structure of the climate model components (e.g. ocean/ice/atmosphere). Even the most(More)
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