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BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that both high frequency (10-20 Hz) and low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have an antidepressant effect in some individuals. Electrophysiologic data indicate that high frequency rTMS enhances neuronal firing efficacy and that low frequency rTMS has the opposite effect. METHODS We(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation(More)
BACKGROUND Functional brain imaging studies in unipolar and secondary depression have generally found decreased prefrontal cortical activity, but in bipolar disorders findings have been more variable. METHODS Forty-three medication-free, treatment-resistant, predominantly rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy(More)
BACKGROUND We determined clustering of depressive symptoms in a combined group of unipolar and patients with bipolar disorder using Principle Components Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory. Then, comparing unipolars and bipolars, these symptom clusters were examined for interrelationships, and for relationships to regional cerebral metabolism for(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise as a probe into the pathophysiology and possible treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. To explore its regional effects, we combined rTMS with positron emission tomography (PET). Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a baseline 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scan. During a second FDG(More)
Anticonvulsants have moved into an important position as alternatives and adjuncts to lithium carbonate in the treatment of bipolar illness. Work with the nonhomologous model of kindled seizures helped in the choice of carbamazepine as a potential mood stabilizer and in the study of the mechanisms of action of the second generation anticonvulsants(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the cognitive effects of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered under the conditions of a treatment trial for major depression. BACKGROUND Although daily left dorsal prefrontal rTMS has improved mood in some patients with treatment-refractory depression, potential cognitive side effects of extended(More)
There is a pressing need for additional treatment options for refractory mood disorders. This controlled comparative study evaluated the efficacy of lamotrigine (LTG) and gabapentin (GBP) monotherapy versus placebo (PLC). Thirty-one patients with refractory bipolar and unipolar mood disorders participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover series of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of divalproex (extended release) in the treatment of acute nonrefractory bipolar depression. METHOD In a stratified, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 18 acutely depressed bipolar outpatients (DSM-IV criteria) received either divalproex monotherapy (target dose level, 70-90 ng/dL) (N = 9) or placebo (N(More)
Dramatic changes have recently occurred in the availability of treatment options for bipolar illness. Second generation mood stabilizing anticonvulsants carbamazepine and valproate are now widely used as alternatives or adjuncts to lithium. High potency benzodiazepines are also used as alternatives to typical neuroleptics, and now atypical neuroleptics are(More)