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BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that both high frequency (10-20 Hz) and low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have an antidepressant effect in some individuals. Electrophysiologic data indicate that high frequency rTMS enhances neuronal firing efficacy and that low frequency rTMS has the opposite effect. METHODS We(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation(More)
There is a pressing need for additional treatment options for refractory mood disorders. This controlled comparative study evaluated the efficacy of lamotrigine (LTG) and gabapentin (GBP) monotherapy versus placebo (PLC). Thirty-one patients with refractory bipolar and unipolar mood disorders participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover series of(More)
Anticonvulsants have moved into an important position as alternatives and adjuncts to lithium carbonate in the treatment of bipolar illness. Work with the nonhomologous model of kindled seizures helped in the choice of carbamazepine as a potential mood stabilizer and in the study of the mechanisms of action of the second generation anticonvulsants(More)
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is expressed at the canalicular domain of hepatocytes, where it serves as the primary route of elimination for monovalent bile acids (BAs) into the bile canaliculi. The most compelling evidence linking dysfunction in BA transport with liver injury in humans is found with carriers of mutations that render BSEP nonfunctional.(More)
BACKGROUND We determined clustering of depressive symptoms in a combined group of unipolar and patients with bipolar disorder using Principle Components Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory. Then, comparing unipolars and bipolars, these symptom clusters were examined for interrelationships, and for relationships to regional cerebral metabolism for(More)
Microarrays are a new technology used to study global gene expression and to decipher biological pathways. In the current study, microarrays were used to examine gene expression patterns associated with cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats received either single or seven daily ip doses of cisplatin (0.5 or 1 mg/kg/day) or the inactive(More)
BACKGROUND Functional brain imaging studies in unipolar and secondary depression have generally found decreased prefrontal cortical activity, but in bipolar disorders findings have been more variable. METHODS Forty-three medication-free, treatment-resistant, predominantly rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy(More)
The rapid discovery of sequence information from the Human Genome Project has exponentially increased the amount of data that can be retrieved from biomedical experiments. Gene expression profiling, through the use of microarray technology, is rapidly contributing to an improved understanding of global, coordinated cellular events in a variety of paradigms.(More)