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We investigated subjects' responses to a synthesized talking face displayed on a computer screen in the context of a questionnaire study. Compared to subjects who answered questions presented via text display on a screen, subjects who answered the same questions spoken by a talking face spent more time, made fewer mistakes, and wrote more comments, When we(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with relapse among cured tuberculosis (TB) patients in a DOTS programme in South India. DESIGN Sputum samples collected from a cohort of TB patients registered between April 2000 and December 2001 were examined by fluorescence microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and by culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 6,(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify the association between biomass fuel usage and sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY A tuberculosis prevalence survey was conducted in a random sample of 50 rural units (villages) and three urban units in the Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu, India during the period 2001-2003. Additional data regarding exposure to(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with default, failure and death among tuberculosis patients treated in a newly implemented DOTS programme in South India. DESIGN Analysis of all patients registered from May 1999 through April 2000. A community survey for active tuberculosis was underway in the area; patients identified in the community survey(More)
SETTING Tiruvallur District, south India. OBJECTIVES To examine gender differences in tuberculosis among adults aged >14 years with respect to infection and disease prevalence, health care service access, care seeking behaviour, diagnostic delay, convenience of directly observed treatment (DOT), stigma and treatment adherence. METHODS Data were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the baseline prevalence of culture-positive and smear-positive tuberculosis and the annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) in a community in south India where DOTS is being implemented. METHODS Using cluster sampling, 50 rural panchayats (villages) and three urban units in Tiruvallur district were selected randomly. All adults(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES The dual epidemic of HIV and tuberculosis is a cause for concern in those countries where these two infections are prevalent in epidemic proportions. We undertook a survey at two sites in North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu in 1992-1993, to know the seroprevalence of HIV infection among tuberculosis patients. The objective of this(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the association of initial tuberculin sensitivity, age and sex with the development of tuberculosis. METHODS A 15-year follow-up of 280000 subjects in south India, where new cases of tuberculosis were detected mainly by periodic population surveys. Life-table technique was employed to estimate tuberculosis incidence and disease risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection among children <10 years and assess the impact of a DOTS-based programme. SETTING After DOTS implementation in Tiruvallur district, south India, we undertook three tuberculin surveys and estimated the ARTI among children aged <10 years. RESULTS The ARTI estimates in the three tuberculin(More)
BACKGROUND In Tiruvallur District, South India, tuberculosis cases are detected at health facilities (HF) as part of a DOTS programme, and by screening adults through community survey (CS) as part of ongoing epidemiological research. OBJECTIVE To compare socio-demographic, clinical and bacteriological characteristics and treatment outcomes of all patients(More)