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BACKGROUND In metazoans, microRNAs, or miRNAs, constitute a growing family of small regulatory RNAs that are usually 19-25 nucleotides in length. They are processed from longer precursor RNAs that fold into stem-loop structures by the ribonuclease Dicer and are thought to regulate gene expression by base pairing with RNAs of protein-coding genes. In(More)
The actin-based myosin system is essential for the organization and dynamics of the endomembrane system and transport network in plant cells. Plants harbour two unique myosin groups, class VIII and class XI, and the latter is structurally and functionally analogous to the animal and fungal class V myosin. Little is known about myosins in grass, even though(More)
The effects of the interaction between Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel and Trichoderma virens (J.H. Mill., Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. were studied using plant physiology, mycorrhizal science, forest pathology, and biochemistry. Seedling growth and physiological parameters were determined, including the colonization rate(More)
Muscle modelling is an important component of body segmental motion analysis. Although many studies had focused on static conditions, the relationship between electromyographic (EMG) signals and joint torque under voluntary dynamic situations has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a recurrent artificial(More)
The mean first exit time and escape probability are utilized to quantify dynamical behaviors of stochastic differential equations with non-Gaussian α-stable type Lévy motions. An efficient and accurate numerical scheme is developed and validated for computing the mean exit time and escape probability from the governing differential-integral equation. An(More)
Zea mays (maize) Opaque-2 (ZmO2) protein is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates the expression of major storage proteins (22-kD zeins) and other important genes during maize seed development. ZmO2 is subject to functional regulation through protein-protein interactions. To unveil the potential regulatory network associated with ZmO2, a(More)
BACKGROUND By using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vectors, foreign epitopes of the VP1 protein from food-and-month disease virus (FMDV) could be fused near to the C-terminus of the TMV coat protein (CP) and expressed at high levels in susceptible tobacco plants. Previously, we have shown that the recombinant TMV vaccines displaying FMDV VP1 epitopes(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as genomic parasites and occupy a significant portion of eukaryotic genomes because of their massive replica-tion in host genomes. However, at times, TEs can also be domesticated by genes and thereby contribute new regulatory functions to genes [1, 2]. Here we show that two TE insertions in a distant(More)
Zeins, the predominent storage proteins in maize endosperm, are encoded by multiple genes and gene families. However, only a few transcriptional factors for zein gene regulation have been functionally characterized. In this study, a MADS-box protein, namely ZmMADS47, was identified as an Opaque2 (O2) interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid screening. The(More)
In plants, Vacuole H(+) -PPases (VPPs) are important proton pumps and encoded by multiple genes. In addition to full-length VPPs, several truncated forms are expressed, but their biological functions are unknown. In this study, we functionally characterized maize vacuole H(+) -PPase 5 (ZmVPP5), a truncated VPP in the maize genome. Although ZmVPP5 shares(More)