The end-to-end delay (also referred to as latency) experienced by gaming users has a significant impact on the quality of online games. In this paper we concentrate on the delay introduced in access networks. This access network delay depends on the access technology used, the network load, the link rate configured on the access links (also referred to as… (More)
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We report the characterization up to second-order polarization mode dispersion of a dispersion-managed fiber using the Jones matrix method. A simple processing algorithm is required to determine differential group delay and principal states of polarization rotation. 1. Introduction Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fiber has become the most… (More)
The points-of-presence of optical networks are interconnected by photonic paths capable of carrying Terabits of data. However, signals along those photonic paths accumulate transmission impairments and thus can be unreadable at the receiver if the accumulated impairments are too high. Our contributions in this paper are three-fold: (1) we propose the use of… (More)
Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil temperatures, measured at various depths by the Royal Netherlands… (More)
The Authors: Skief Houben and Nico Baken are with Delft University, and Philippe Hervé and Rob Smets are with Lucent Technologies.
A male patient is reported with benign intracranial hypertension, who presented with three periods of partial pituitary deficiency, corresponding to episodes of headaches and papilledema. No radiological signs of the empty sella syndrome were observed. Since benign intracranial hypertension has been implicated in the development of the empty sella syndrome,… (More)
Sucrose, nycodenz, metrizamide and a mixture of equal volumes of sucrose and metrizamide were used as density gradient media for the isolation of retinal rod outer segments. The high osmolarity of sucrose had a strongly negative effect on the nature of the rod outer segments, whereas they were much better preserved using iodinated density gradient media… (More)