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Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a major soluble mediator of inflammation. Two human IL-1 genes, alpha and beta, have been isolated, which encode polypeptides with only 20-30% amino acid sequence homology. Unlike most secreted proteins, the two cytokines do not have a signal sequence, an unexpected finding in view of their biological role. Here we show that IL-1(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a factory where secretory proteins are manufactured, and where stringent quality-control systems ensure that only correctly folded proteins are sent to their final destinations. The changing needs of the ER factory are monitored by integrated signalling pathways that constantly adjust the levels of folding assistants. ER(More)
Direct monitoring of the free Ca2+ concentration in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important but still unsolved experimental problem. We have shown that a Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein, aequorin, can be addressed to defined subcellular compartments by adding the appropriate targeting sequences. By engineering a new aequorin chimera with(More)
Eukaryotic cells are able to discriminate between native and non-native polypeptides, selectively transporting the former to their final destinations. Secretory proteins are scrutinized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface. Recent findings reveal novel features of the underlying molecular mechanisms, with several chaperone networks cooperating(More)
Oxidizing conditions must be maintained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to allow the formation of disulfide bonds in secretory proteins. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a mammalian gene (ERO1-L) that shares extensive homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERO1 gene, required in yeast for oxidative protein folding. When expressed in(More)
In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), disulfide bonds are simultaneously formed in nascent proteins and removed from incorrectly folded or assembled molecules. In this compartment, the redox state must be, therefore, precisely regulated. Here we show that both human Ero1-Lalpha and Ero1-Lbeta (hEROs) facilitate disulfide bond formation in immunoglobulin(More)
Oxidative conditions must be generated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to allow disulfide bond formation in secretory proteins. A family of conserved genes, termed ERO for ER oxidoreductins, plays a key role in this process. We have previously described the human gene ERO1-L, which complements several phenotypic traits of the yeast thermo-sensitive mutant(More)
Thioredoxin, despite its function as an intracellular disulfide reducing enzyme and its lack of a signal sequence, has been found to play some roles extracellularly. Here we show that thioredoxin is actively secreted by a variety of normal and transformed cells, including fibroblasts, airway epithelial cells, and activated B and T lymphocytes. Neither(More)
In human cells, Ero1-Lalpha and -Lbeta (hEROs) regulate oxidative protein folding by selectively oxidizing protein disulfide isomerase. Specific protein--protein interactions are probably crucial for regulating the formation, isomerization and reduction of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To identify molecules involved in ER redox control,(More)
AIMS The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many functions, including protein folding, redox homeostasis, and Ca(2+) storage and signaling. To perform these multiple tasks, the ER is composed of distinct, specialized subregions, amongst which mitochondrial-associated ER membranes (MAM) emerge as key signaling hubs. How these multiple functions are(More)