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Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of dendrites, cell bodies, and long axons. Because of the lack of protein synthesis machinery in axons, materials required in axons and synapses have to be transported down the axons after synthesis in the cell body. Fast anterograde transport conveys different kinds of membranous organelles such as mitochondria(More)
The tau gene encodes a protein (Tau) that is a major neuronal microtubule-associated protein localized mostly in axons. It has microtubule-binding and tubulin-polymerizing activity in vitro and is thought to make short crossbridges between axonal microtubules. Further, tau-transfected non-neuronal cells extend long axon-like processes in which microtubule(More)
Kinesin is known as a representative cytoskeletal motor protein that is engaged in cell division and axonal transport. In addition to the mutant assay, recent advances using the PCR cloning technique have elucidated the existence of many kinds of kinesin-related proteins in yeast, Drosophila, and mice. We previously cloned five different members of kinesin(More)
To further elucidate the mechanism of organelle transport, we cloned a novel member of the mouse kinesin superfamily, KIF1B. This N-terminal-type motor protein is expressed ubiquitously in various kinds of tissues. In situ hybridization revealed that KIF1B is expressed abundantly in differentiated nerve cells. Interestingly, K1F1B works as a monomer, having(More)
Two monoclonal antibodies, 5E6 and 1B6, were raised against microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. 5E6 recognized the entire MAP1B population, while 1B6 detected only phosphorylated forms. Affinity-purified MAP1B appeared as a long, filamentous molecule (186 +/- 38 nm) with a small spherical portion at one(More)
Membrane organella are transported bidirectionally in cells, and the axonal transport system has provided an ideal model system for studying this bidirectional transport. Kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein were identified as candidates for the motor molecules of fast axonal transport, which transport organella along microtubules anterogradely and retrogradely.(More)
In neuronal cells, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) can be classified into two distinct groups. One consists of force-producing MAPs, the main components of which are kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. The other is composed of fibrous MAPs, which include tau and MAP2. Many studies have been performed on the respective groups to understand their(More)
To shed light on how axonal transport is regulated, we examined the possible roles of protein kinase A (PKA) in vivo suggested by our previous work (Sato-Yoshitake et al., 1992). Pharmacological probes or the purified catalytic subunit of PKA were applied to the permeabilized-reactivated model of crayfish walking leg giant axon, and the effect was monitored(More)
Brain dynein is a microtubule-activated ATPase considered to be a candidate to function as a molecular motor to transport membranous organelles retrogradely in the axon. To determine whether brain dynein really binds to retrogradely transported organelles in vivo and how it is transported to the nerve terminals, we studied the localization of brain dynein(More)
Biochemical, pharmacological and immunocytochemical studies have implicated the microtubule-activated ATPase, kinesin, in the movement of membrane bounded organelles in fast axonal transport. In vitro studies suggested that kinesin moves organelles preferentially in the anterograde direction, but data about the function and precise localization of kinesin(More)