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Bumblebees are major pollinators of crops and wildflowers in northern temperate regions. Knowledge of their ecology is vital for the design of effective management and conservation strategies but key aspects remain poorly understood. Here we employed microsatellite markers to estimate and compare foraging range and nest density among four UK species: Bombus(More)
1. Bumblebees provide an important pollination service to both crops and wild plants. Many species have declined in the UK, particularly in arable regions. While bumblebee forage requirements have been widely studied, there has been less consideration of whether availability of nesting sites is limiting. It is important to know which habitats contain the(More)
1. Foraging range is a key aspect of the ecology of 'central place foragers'. Estimating how far bees fly under different circumstances is essential for predicting colony success, and for estimating bee-mediated gene flow between plant populations. It is likely to be strongly influenced by forage distribution, something that is hard to quantify in all but(More)
Dispersal ability is a key determinant of the propensity of an organism to cope with habitat fragmentation and climate change. Here we quantify queen dispersal in two common bumblebee species in an arable landscape. Dispersal was measured by taking DNA samples from workers in the spring and summer, and from queens in the following spring, at 14 sites across(More)
BACKGROUND Hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) have been shown to reduce the incidence of neutropenia and fever in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. PURPOSE This cost analysis was designed to determine the conditions in which use of HGFs in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy is cost-effective. METHODS We used a standard model based on decision(More)
The objective of this study was to compare the cost and cost-effectiveness of three transfusion strategies in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia: 1) the use of unfiltered pooled platelets until alloimmunization developed and of crossmatch-compatible single-donor platelets thereafter; 2) the use of filtered blood components until alloimmunization(More)
The response of skeletal muscle to ischemia or trauma is similar whatever the mechanism of injury. Muscle has much more inherent ability to regenerate than has been recognized in the past. The extent of muscle damage is proportional to the duration and severity of the ischemic process. Circulation to ischemis muscle must be re-established as soon as(More)
The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were(More)
Great difficulty is encountered in choosing screws for internal fixation, for screws differ in material, geometry, dimension, and in insertion technique. Recently claims have been made that self-tapping screws cause necrosis of bone and result in fibrous tissue formation, with loss of holding power. This investigation was undertaken to study the healing of(More)
Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses(More)