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Let H = {A 1 ,. .. , A n , B 1 ,. .. , B n } be a collection of 2n subgraphs of the complete bipartite graph K n,n. The collection H is called an orthogonal double cover (ODC) of K n,n if each edge of K n,n occurs in exactly two of the graphs in H; E(A i) ∩ E(A j) = φ = E(B i) ∩ E(B j) for every i, j ∈ In this paper, we establish a product construction for(More)
For a simple graph G with chromatic number x(G), the Nordhaus-Gaddum inequalities give upper and lower bounds for z(G) • (G ¢) and z(G)+ x(GC). Based on a characterization by Fink of the extremal graphs G attaining the lower bounds for the product and sum, we characterize the extremal graphs G for which A(G)B(G c) is minimum, where A and B are each of(More)
As of February 2012, 50 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been reported for HIV-1 while one CRF for HIV-2. Also according to HIV sequence compendium 2011, the HIV sequence database is replete with 414,398 sequences. The fact that there are CRFs, which are an amalgamation of sequences derived from six or more subtypes (CRF27_cpx (cpx refers to(More)
We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using(More)
The frequencies of naturally occurring protease inhibitor resistance mutations in HIV proviral sequences of drug naïve sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya and their correlation with host immune response driven positively selected mutations in HIV-1
Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 69% of the people living with HIV globally. An estimated 1,600,000 Kenyans are living with HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has saved 9 million life-years in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, drug resistance mutations reduce the effectiveness of ART, and need to be monitored for effective ART. Naturally occurring primary(More)
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