R. S. Kadam

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Topical ocular drug bioavailability is notoriously poor, in the order of 5% or less. This is a consequence of effective multiple barriers to drug entry, comprising nasolacrimal drainage, epithelial drug transport barriers and clearance from the vasculature in the conjunctiva. While sustained drug delivery to the back of the eye is now feasible with(More)
A simple, selective, and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of eight beta-blockers (atenolol, sotalol, nadolol, pindolol, timolol, metoprolol, betaxolol and propranolol) in various bovine eye tissues including sclera, choroid-RPE, retina, and vitreous. The analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid(More)
PURPOSE First, to determine the influence of drug lipophilicity (using eight beta-blockers) and molecular weight (using 4 kDa and 40 kDa fluoroscein isothiocyanate [FITC]-dextrans) on suprachoroidal delivery to the posterior segment of the eye by using a rabbit ex vivo eye model. Second, to determine whether drug distribution differs between the dosed and(More)
We report a novel hybrid polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer hydrogel/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle platform (HDNP) for codelivery of two antiglaucoma drugs, brimonidine and timolol maleate. This platform was not cytotoxic to human corneal epithelial cells. Cellular uptake of Nile red-encapsulating PLGA nanoparticles was significantly(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism. LXR agonists have been shown to limit the cellular cholesterol content by inducing reverse cholesterol transport, increasing bile acid production, and inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Most of them, however, also increase lipogenesis via sterol regulatory(More)
UNLABELLED Dendrimer hydrogel (DH), made from ultraviolet-cured polyamidoamine dendrimer G3.0 tethered with three polyethylene glycol (PEG, 12,000 Da)-acrylate chains (8.1% w/v) in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS), was studied for the delivery of brimonidine (0.1% w/v) and timolol maleate (0.5% w/v), two antiglaucoma drugs. DH was found to be(More)
PURPOSE To determine the influence of drug physicochemical properties on brain mitochondrial delivery of 20 drugs at physiological pH. METHODS The delivery of 8 cationic drugs (beta-blockers), 6 neutral drugs (corticosteroids), and 6 anionic drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs) to isolated rat brain mitochondria was determined with and(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of reduced apparent clearance to the enhanced exposure reported for biodegradable nanoparticles after extravascular and intravascular routes of administration. Plasma concentration profiles for drug and nanoparticle formulations after administration by intravenous, intraduodenal, and oral routes were(More)
In vitro bovine eye tissue/phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4, partition coefficients (Kt:b), in vitro binding to natural melanin, and in vivo delivery at 1 h after posterior subconjunctival injection in Brown Norway rats were determined for eight beta-blockers. The Kt:b was in the order intact tissue, dry weight method >or= intact tissue, wet weight method(More)