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OBJECTIVE To estimate the lost investment of domestically educated doctors migrating from sub-Saharan African countries to Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. DESIGN Human capital cost analysis using publicly accessible data. SETTINGS Sub-Saharan African countries. PARTICIPANTS Nine sub-Saharan African countries with an HIV(More)
The objective of this study was to determine whether paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenol fungicides and their dioxin contaminants is associated with childhood cancer in the offspring of sawmill workers. We used data from 23,829 British Columbian sawmill workers employed for at least 1 continuous year between 1950 and 1985 in 11 sawmills that used(More)
BACKGROUND Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S.) and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and(More)
BACKGROUND Insufficient data are available from single cohort studies to allow estimation of the prognosis of HIV-1 infected, treatment-naive patients who start highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The ART Cohort Collaboration, which includes 13 cohort studies from Europe and North America, was established to fill this knowledge gap. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal time for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uncertain. METHODS We conducted two parallel analyses involving a total of 17,517 asymptomatic patients with HIV infection in the United States and Canada who received medical care during the period from(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations in the community and HIV incidence among injecting drug users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Inner city community in Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Injecting drug users, with and without HIV, followed up every six months between 1 May 1996 and 30 June 2007. MAIN(More)
BACKGROUND Law enforcement is often used in an effort to reduce the social, community and health-related harms of illicit drug use by injection drug users (IDUs). There are, however, few data on the benefits of such enforcement or on the potential harms. A large-scale police "crackdown" to control illicit drug use in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside provided(More)
BACKGROUND In 2008, the IAS-USA published the revised guidelines for the use of HAART in adults substantially increasing the number of individuals eligible for HAART. The epidemic in British Columbia (BC) is mainly among men who have sex with men and those with injection drug use. Here, we explored the potential impact of different HAART coverage scenarios,(More)
BACKGROUND The CD4 cell count at which combination antiretroviral therapy should be started is a central, unresolved issue in the care of HIV-1-infected patients. In the absence of randomised trials, we examined this question in prospective cohort studies. METHODS We analysed data from 18 cohort studies of patients with HIV. Antiretroviral-naive patients(More)