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Several mutations are required for cancer development, and genome sequencing has revealed that many cancers, including breast cancer, have somatic mutation spectra dominated by C-to-T transitions. Most of these mutations occur at hydrolytically disfavoured non-methylated cytosines throughout the genome, and are sometimes clustered. Here we show that the DNA(More)
Thousands of somatic mutations accrue in most human cancers, and their causes are largely unknown. We recently showed that the DNA cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B accounts for up to half of the mutational load in breast carcinomas expressing this enzyme. Here we address whether APOBEC3B is broadly responsible for mutagenesis in multiple tumor types. We analyzed(More)
To investigate the extent to which in vivo mutation spectra might reflect the intrinsic specificities of active mutators, genetic and biochemical assays were used to analyse the DNA target specificities of cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC family. The results reveal the critical importance of nucleotides immediately 5' of the targeted C for the specificity(More)
Upon starvation some Escherichia coli cells undergo a transient, genome-wide hypermutation (called adaptive mutation) that is recombination-dependent and appears to be a response to a stressful environment. Adaptive mutation may reflect an inducible mechanism that generates genetic variability in times of stress. Previously, however, the regulatory(More)
Stationary-phase mutation in microbes can produce selected ('adaptive') mutants preferentially. In one system, this occurs via a distinct, recombination-dependent mechanism. Two points of controversy have surrounded these adaptive reversions of an Escherichia coli lac mutation. First, are the mutations directed preferentially to the selected gene in a(More)
Aspects of the molecular mechanism of "adaptive" mutation are emerging from one experimental system: reversion of an Escherichia coli lac frameshift mutation carried on a conjugative plasmid. Homologous recombination is required and the mutations resemble polymerase errors. Reports implicating a role for conjugal transfer proteins suggested that the(More)
A carbon-rich black layer, dating to approximately 12.9 ka, has been previously identified at approximately 50 Clovis-age sites across North America and appears contemporaneous with the abrupt onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling. The in situ bones of extinct Pleistocene megafauna, along with Clovis tool assemblages, occur below this black layer but not(More)
CEM15/APOBEC3G is a cellular protein required for resistance to infection by virion infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, using a murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based system, we provide evidence that CEM15/APOBEC3G is a DNA deaminase that is incorporated into virions during viral production and subsequently triggers(More)
After gene rearrangement, immunoglobulin variable genes are diversified by somatic hypermutation or gene conversion, whereas the constant region is altered by class-switch recombination. All three processes depend on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a B-cell-specific protein that has been proposed (because of sequence homology) to function by(More)
A powerful mechanism of vertebrate innate immunity has been discovered in the past year, in which APOBEC proteins inhibit retroviruses by deaminating cytosine residues in nascent retroviral cDNA. To thwart this cellular defence, HIV encodes Vif, a small protein that mediates APOBEC degradation. Therefore, the balance between APOBECs and Vif might be a(More)