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Systematic toxicity testing, using conventional toxicology methodologies, of single chemicals and chemical mixtures is highly impractical because of the immense numbers of chemicals and chemical mixtures involved and the limited scientific resources. Therefore, the development of unconventional, efficient, and predictive toxicology methods is imperative.(More)
A combination of experimental and simulation approaches were used to analyze the clonal growth of preneoplastic, enzyme-altered foci during liver carcinogenesis in an initiation-promotion regimen. Male Fisher 344 rats, 8 weeks of age, were initiated with a single dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.) of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Beginning 2 weeks later, animals were(More)
By using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation, the interindividual variability in the concentrations of chemicals in a worker's exhaled breath and urine were estimated and compared with existing biological exposure indices (BEIs). The PBPK model simulated an exposure regimen similar to a typical workday,(More)
Of the twelve different chlorobenzene isomers, a thorough evaluation of carcinogenicity has only been assessed on monochlorobenzene, 1,2-, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene. In the studies presented here, we measured the ability of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and hexachlorobenzene(More)
A distinct, nonfocal expression pattern was observed for glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (rGSTP1-1) in rats exposed to either hexachloro-(HCB) or pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The nonfocal expression was localized to the centrilobular region with the most intense staining nearest the central vein. A Western blot analysis revealed a 5- and 15-fold induction of(More)
Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) is an important environmental contaminant derived primarily from the by-product contamination of the popular fungicides hexachlorobenzene and pentachloronitrobenzene. Its tumor-promoting activity was studied in a medium-term initiation/promotion assay in male F344 rats. Animals were given a single i.p. injection of(More)
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect canine immunoglobulin G antibodies specific for infectious canine hepatitis virus and the serologically related canine adenovirus Type 2. The sequential development of homologous and heterologous antibodies was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum neutralization tests in two(More)
During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte(More)
Human exposure to chemicals, be it environmental or occupational, is rarely, if ever, limited to a single chemical. Therefore, it is essential that we consider multiple chemical effects and interactions in our risk assessment process. However, with the almost infinitely large number of chemical mixtures in the environment, systematic studies of the(More)