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It is well known that the ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3-FAs; also known as n-3 fatty acids) can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Commonly consumed as fish products, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, ω-3-FAs have a number of health benefits ascribed to them, including reduced plasma triglyceride levels, amelioration of atherosclerosis and increased(More)
Adipose tissue hypoxia and inflammation have been causally implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Here, we report that, early in the course of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and obesity, adipocyte respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to increased oxygen consumption and a state of relative adipocyte hypoxia. These events are sufficient to trigger(More)
Macrophages play critical, but opposite, roles in acute and chronic inflammation and cancer. In response to pathogens or injury, inflammatory macrophages express cytokines that stimulate cytotoxic T cells, whereas macrophages in neoplastic and parasitic diseases express anti-inflammatory cytokines that induce immune suppression and may promote resistance to(More)
Microarray techniques hold great promise for identifying risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ) but have not yet generated widely reproducible results due to methodological differences between studies and the high risk of type I inferential errors. Here we established a protocol for conservative analysis and interpretation of gene expression data from the(More)
CD4(+) T-cell depletion is a characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In this study, modulation of mRNA expression of 6800 genes was monitored simultaneously at eight time points in a CD4(+) T-cell line (CEM-GFP) during HIV infection. The responses to infection included: (1) >30% decrease at 72 h after infection in overall(More)
Cell-type specific genes were recognized by interrogating microarrays carrying Dictyostelium gene fragments with probes prepared from fractions enriched in prestalk and prespore cells. Cell-type specific accumulation of mRNA from 17 newly identified genes was confirmed by Northern analyses. DNA microarrays carrying 690 targets were used to determine(More)
Precise control of the innate immune response is required for resistance to microbial infections and maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Because this response involves coordinate regulation of hundreds of genes, it provides a powerful biological system to elucidate the molecular strategies that underlie signal- and time-dependent transitions of gene(More)
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal(More)
Ischemic tolerance is a phenomenon whereby a sublethal ischemic insult [ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] provides robust protection against subsequent lethal ischemia. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and subsequent new gene transcription are required for tolerance. We utilized the NMDA antagonist, MK801, prior to the IPC stimulus to(More)
The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and the related factor known as silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) are essential components of multiprotein complexes that mediate active repression by unliganded nuclear receptors. Recent studies suggest that NCoR and SMRT can interact with and exert repressive effects on several(More)