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Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal(More)
It is well known that the ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3-FAs; also known as n-3 fatty acids) can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Commonly consumed as fish products, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, ω-3-FAs have a number of health benefits ascribed to them, including reduced plasma triglyceride levels, amelioration of atherosclerosis and increased(More)
MOTIVATION High-density oligonucleotide arrays (GeneChip, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) have become a standard research tool in many areas of biomedical research. They quantitatively monitor the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously by measuring fluorescence from gene-specific targets or probes. The relationship between signal intensities and(More)
Cell-type specific genes were recognized by interrogating microarrays carrying Dictyostelium gene fragments with probes prepared from fractions enriched in prestalk and prespore cells. Cell-type specific accumulation of mRNA from 17 newly identified genes was confirmed by Northern analyses. DNA microarrays carrying 690 targets were used to determine(More)
Ischemic tolerance is a phenomenon whereby a sublethal ischemic insult [ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] provides robust protection against subsequent lethal ischemia. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and subsequent new gene transcription are required for tolerance. We utilized the NMDA antagonist, MK801, prior to the IPC stimulus to(More)
Precise control of the innate immune response is required for resistance to microbial infections and maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Because this response involves coordinate regulation of hundreds of genes, it provides a powerful biological system to elucidate the molecular strategies that underlie signal- and time-dependent transitions of gene(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the synergism of HIV and methamphetamine. DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a microarray study using RNA from the frontal cortex of 15 individuals with HIV infection to initially identify genes that are differentially regulated by HIV encephalitis (HIVE). From the analysis of the microarray data, we identified candidate genes to be(More)
Adipose tissue hypoxia and inflammation have been causally implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Here, we report that, early in the course of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and obesity, adipocyte respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to increased oxygen consumption and a state of relative adipocyte hypoxia. These events are sufficient to trigger(More)
CD4(+) T-cell depletion is a characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In this study, modulation of mRNA expression of 6800 genes was monitored simultaneously at eight time points in a CD4(+) T-cell line (CEM-GFP) during HIV infection. The responses to infection included: (1) >30% decrease at 72 h after infection in overall(More)
MOTIVATION The DNA microarray technology can generate a large amount of data describing the time-course of gene expression. These data, when properly interpreted, can yield a great deal of information concerning differential gene expression during development. Much current effort in bioinformatics has been devoted to the analysis of gene expression data,(More)