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Carbohydrate metabolism, under sporulation conditions, was compared in sporulating and non-sporulating diploids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrate was fractionated into trehalose, glycogen, mannan, and an alkali-insoluble fraction composed of glucan and insoluble glycogen. The behavior of three fractions was essentially the same in both(More)
Virtually all uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli encode filamentous surface adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. High-resolution electron microscopy of infected mouse bladders revealed that type 1 pilus tips interacted directly with the lumenal surface of the bladder, which is embedded with hexagonal arrays of integral membrane glycoproteins known(More)
Type 1 pili are heteropolymeric mannosebinding fibers produced by all members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The bulk of the fiber is composed of FimA. Two macromolecular complexes responsible for mediating an interaction with mannose-containing receptors were purified from fimA- Escherichia coli by mannose affinity chromatography and ion-exchange(More)
Three cell-permeant compounds, cytochalasin D, latrunculin A and jasplakinolide, which perturb intracellular actin dynamics by distinct mechanisms, were used to probe the role of filamentous actin and actin assembly in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells. These compounds had variable effects on receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin that(More)
The mechanism of nonflagellar swimming of marine unicellular cyanobacteria remains poorly understood. SwmA is an abundant cell surface-associated 130-kDa glycoprotein that is required for the generation of thrust in Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102. Ultrastructural comparisons of wild-type cells to a mutant strain in which the gene encoding SwmA has been(More)
Perforin-mediated cytotoxicity is an essential host defense, in which defects contribute to tumor development and pathogenic disorders including autoimmunity and autoinflammation. How perforin (PFN) facilitates intracellular delivery of pro-apoptotic and inflammatory granzymes across the bilayer of targets remains unresolved. Here we show that cellular(More)
We previously reported that the chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome encodes an authentic, membrane-associated glycosyltransferase, hyaluronan synthase (HAS). Hyaluronan, a linear polysaccharide chain composed of alternating beta1,4-glucuronic acid and beta1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine groups, is present in vertebrates as well as a few pathogenic bacteria. Studies of(More)
Bacterial virulence factors are typically surface-associated or secreted molecules that in Gram-negative bacteria must cross the outer membrane (OM). Protein translocation across the bacterial OM is not well understood. To elucidate this process we studied P pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli. We present high-resolution electron micrographs of the OM(More)
The sprouting of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is necessary for any solid tumor to grow large enough to cause life-threatening disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key promoters of tumor induced angiogenesis. VEGF receptors, the tyrosine kinases Flt-1 and KDR, are expressed on vascular endothelial cells and initiate(More)
We used high resolution three-dimensional electron microscopy to visualize Golgi cisternal structure and analyze morphological transitions induced by various in vitro incubations. Our images show that Golgi cisternae have two distinct surface coatings with different distributions and apparent functions. The first type, probably a coatomer coat, consists of(More)