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The xanthine oxidase class of molybdenum enzyzmes requires a terminal sulfur ligand at the active site. It has been proposed that a special sulfurase catalyzes the insertion of this ligand thereby activating the enzymes. Previous analyses of mutants in plants indicated that the genetic locus aba3 is involved in this step leading to activation of the(More)
In mammals and birds, sulfite oxidase (SO) is a homodimeric molybdenum enzyme consisting of an N-terminal heme domain and a C-terminal molybdenum domain (EC ). In plants, the existence of SO has not yet been demonstrated, while sulfite reductase as part of sulfur assimilation is well characterized. Here we report the cloning of a plant sulfite oxidase gene(More)
Sulfite oxidizing activities are known since years in animals, microorganisms, and also plants. Among plants, the only enzyme well characterized on molecular and biochemical level is the molybdoenzyme sulfite oxidase (SO). It oxidizes sulfite using molecular oxygen as electron acceptor, leading to the production of sulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The latter(More)
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco), a highly conserved pterin compound complexing molybdenum, is required for the enzymatic activities of all molybdenum enzymes except nitrogenase. Moco is synthesized by a unique and evolutionarily old pathway that requires the activities of at least six gene products. Some of the proteins involved in bacterial, plant, and(More)
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) consists of a unique and conserved pterin derivative, usually referred to as molybdopterin (MPT), which coordinates the essential transition metal molybdenum (Mo). Moco is required for the enzymatic activities of all Mo-enzymes, with the exception of nitrogenase and is synthesized by an evolutionary old multi-step pathway that(More)
A universal molybdenum-containing cofactor (MoCo) is essential for the activity of all human molybdoenzymes, including sulphite oxidase. The free cofactor is highly unstable, and all organisms share a similar biosynthetic pathway. The involved enzymes exhibit homologies, even between bacteria and humans. We have exploited these homologies to isolate a cDNA(More)
Molybdenum (Mo) plays an essential role in the active site of all eukaryotic Mo-containing enzymes. In plants, Mo enzymes are important for nitrate assimilation, phytohormone synthesis, and purine catabolism. Mo is bound to a unique metal binding pterin (molybdopterin [MPT]), thereby forming the active Mo cofactor (Moco), which is highly conserved in(More)
Biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) can be divided into (1) the formation of a precursor and (2) the latter's subsequent conversion, by molybdopterin synthase, into the organic moiety of MoCo. These two steps are reflected by the complementation groups A and B and the two formally distinguished types of MoCo deficiency that have an identical(More)
Gephyrin was originally identified as a membrane-associated protein that is essential for the postsynaptic localization of receptors for the neurotransmitters glycine and GABA(A). A sequence comparison revealed homologies between gephyrin and proteins necessary for the biosynthesis of the universal molybdenum cofactor (MoCo). Because gephyrin expression can(More)
When tobacco is provided with a high nitrate supply, only a small amount of the nitrate taken up by the roots is immediately assimilated inside the roots, while the majority is transported to the leaves where it is reduced to ammonium. To elucidate the importance of root nitrate assimilation, tobacco plants have been engineered that showed no detectable(More)