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We show, using dot matrix comparisons and statistical analysis of sequence alignments, that seven sequenced sigma factors, E. coli sigma-70 and sigma-32, B. subtilis sigma-43 and sigma-29, phage SP01 gene products 28 and 34, and phage T4 gene product 55, comprise a homologous family of proteins. Sigma-70, sigma-32, and sigma-43 each have two copies of a(More)
A backbone model of a 10-subunit yeast RNA polymerase II has been derived from x-ray diffraction data extending to 3 angstroms resolution. All 10 subunits exhibit a high degree of identity with the corresponding human proteins, and 9 of the 10 subunits are conserved among the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Notable features of the model(More)
Although more than 30 Escherichia coli promoters utilize the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing sigmaS (EsigmaS), and it is known that there is some overlap between the promoters recognized by EsigmaS and by the major E. coli holoenzyme (Esigma70), the sequence elements responsible for promoter recognition by EsigmaS are not well understood. To define the(More)
Wheat germ RNA polymerase II was used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that cross-react with the largest subunit of calf thymus RNA polymerase II. Most of these mAbs were of the IgM isotype and were shown to react with a synthetic peptide containing the consensus sequence for the C-terminal heptapeptide repeat that has been found on the largest subunit(More)
The kinetics of formation and of dissociation of open complexes (RPo) between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (R) and the lambda PR promoter (P) have been studied as a function of temperature in the physiological range using the nitrocellulose filter binding assay. The kinetic data provide further evidence for the mechanism R + P in equilibrium I1 in(More)
We investigated the binding of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzymes bearing sigma70, sigma(S), sigma32, or sigma54 to the ribosomal RNA operons (rrn) in vivo. At the rrn promoter, we observed "holoenzyme switching" from Esigma70 to Esigma(S) or Esigma32 in response to environmental cues. We also examined if sigma factors are retained by core polymerase during(More)
A set of internal deletions and frame-shift mutations was made in the structural gene for the major sigma factor of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (sigma 70). The truncated proteins from these various mutants were examined to determine if they retained the ability to bind core RNA polymerase. Two assays were used to determine core-binding activity. Gel(More)
The interactions of T7 RNA polymerase with T7 late promoters were studied by using quantitative footprinting with methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II) [MPE-Fe(II)] as the DNA cleaving agent. Class II and class III T7 promoters have a highly conserved 23 base pair sequence from -17 to +6. Among class III promoters the -22 to -18 region is also highly conserved. For(More)
The promoter structure of the known small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contains two major effectors of transcriptional activity, a proximal sequence element (PSE) and a distal sequence element (DSE). In previous work, methidiumpropyl-EDTA-Fe(II) footprinting was used to demonstrate the existence in human placental extracts of a protein producing footprints(More)