R Philip Snaith

Learn More
A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Hedonic tone and its absence, anhedonia, are important in psychopathological research, but instruments for their assessment are lengthy and probably culturally biased. METHOD A new scale was constructed from the responses of a large sample of the general population to a request to list six situations which afforded pleasure. The most frequent(More)
To date there has been no suitable scale for the self-assessment of irritability in the clinical situation. Existing scales have either included aspects of personality trait together with present state or they have been constructed on non-clinical populations. A self-assessment scale has been constructed which seeks to overcome such faults. Measures of(More)
All measuring instruments require further validation both in the setting for which they were designed and in other fields. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was designed for detection and assessment of those mood disorders in the setting of hospital medical and surgical clinics. Reasons are given for supposing it has advantages over other similar(More)
Self-rating scales are finding an increasing use in psychiatric work. Not only are they widely used in research, but they provide the clinician with a score indicating the patient's psychiatric state at any one time, and these scores if repeated throughout the duration of treatment may be considered to provide a continuing measure of the severity of the(More)
Research now requires instruments capable of a better distinction between depressive and anxiety disorders. The study is concerned with two relatively recent clinician-rated scales, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Anxiety Scale together with two recent self-assessment scales, the Irritability-Depression-Anxiety Scale and the(More)
Phenothiazine drugs were withdrawn from 17 chronic schizophrenic in-patients, with a control group of 14 patients remaining on active medication. The trial was conducted under double blind conditions over a period of 42 weeks with weekly assessment of the patients by ward nurses. Of the placebo group 35% relapsed, relapse being related to the level of(More)
The heading of 'Irritable Mood' was introduced into the Index Medicus in 1985 and it is noted that this term is frequently used but seldom defined. It is therefore important that a consensus is reached concerning its definition in the context of psychopathology and a definition is offered. It seems important to distinguish irritable mood and its outward(More)