R Paul Johnson

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The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies,(More)
Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) replicate optimally in activated memory CD4(+) T cells, a cell type that is abundant in the intestine. SIV infection of rhesus monkeys resulted in profound and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells in the intestine within days of infection, before any such changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The loss(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) K3 and K5 proteins dramatically downregulate MHC class I molecules. However, although MHC class I downregulation may protect KSHV-infected cells from cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition, these cells become potential targets for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis. We now show that K5 also downregulates(More)
We previously described a method for isolating murine hematopoietic stem cells capable of reconstituting lethally irradiated recipients, which depends solely on dual-wavelength flow cytometric analysis of murine bone marrow cells stained with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. This method, which appears to rely on the differential ability of(More)
Three different deletion mutants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that vary in their levels of attenuation were tested for the ability to protect against mucosal challenge with pathogenic SIV. Four female rhesus monkeys were vaccinated by intravenous inoculation with SIVmac239Delta3, four with SIVmac239Delta3X, and four with SIVmac239Delta4. These(More)
A herpesvirus that is related to but distinct from the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) was isolated from rhesus monkeys. The sequence of 10.6 kbp from virion DNA revealed the presence of an interleukin-6 homolog similar to what is present in KSHV and a closer relatedness of the DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B reading(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to control of HIV/SIV infection. We defined macaque NK-cell subsets based on expression of CD56 and CD16 and found their distribution to be highly disparate. CD16(+) NK cells predominated in peripheral blood, whereas most mucosal NK cells were CD56(+), and lymph nodes contained both CD56(+) and CD16(-)CD56(-)(More)
Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development(More)
A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck)(More)
Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 10(5) to 10(7) RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated(More)