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The accepted standard treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis consists of medications for disease symptoms, including treatment for acute exacerbations. However, currently there is no therapy that alters the progression of physical disability associated with this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interferon beta-1a could slow the(More)
OBJECTIVE We used ultra-high field MRI to visualize cortical lesion types described by neuropathology in 16 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with 8 age-matched controls; to characterize the contrast properties of cortical lesions including T2*, T2, T1, and phase images; and to investigate the relationship between cortical lesion types and(More)
OBJECTIVES Evaluate cross-sectionally the contribution of focal cortical lesion (CL) subtypes at ultra-high-field MRI and traditional MRI metrics of brain damage to neurologic disability and cognitive performance in a heterogeneous multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort. METHODS Thirty-four patients with early or established disease including clinically isolated(More)
We used a surface-based analysis of T2* relaxation rates at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging, which allows sampling quantitative T2* throughout the cortical width, to map in vivo the spatial distribution of intracortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Ultra-high resolution quantitative T2* maps were obtained in 10 subjects with clinically isolated(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of JC virus (JCV) reactivation and JCV-specific cellular immune response during prolonged natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We enrolled 43 JCV-seropositive MS patients, including 32 on natalizumab monotherapy >18 months, 6 on interferon β-1a monotherapy >36 months, and 5 untreated controls. We(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment with interferon beta has been shown to help patients with established multiple sclerosis, but it is not known whether initiating treatment at the time of a first clinical demyelinating event is of value. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of 383 patients who had a first acute clinical demyelinating event (optic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if progressive brain atrophy could be detected over 1- and 2-year intervals in relapsing MS, based on annual MR studies from the Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG) trial of interferon beta-1a (Avonex). METHODS All subjects had mild to moderate disability, with baseline expanded disability status scores ranging(More)
BACKGROUND Brain imaging studies detect abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter in patients with MS. OBJECTIVE To investigate the histopathologic basis for these changes in autopsy tissue from a patient with MS with 9 months' disease duration and a terminal brain stem lesion. METHODS The brain stem and spinal cord were analyzed ultrastructurally(More)
BACKGROUND Demyelination alone may not explain the progressive disability that frequently develops in MS. An alternative explanation for irreversible disability assumes a contribution from axonal injury or loss. In theory, axonal injury may occur in the focal areas characterized by early inflammation, or can be more distant, as in Wallerian degeneration.(More)
The objective of this work was to assess the effect of interferon beta-1a (Avonex) on the rate of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in subgroups based on type of presenting event, baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, and demographic factors in the Controlled High-Risk Subjects(More)