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Elucidating how the brain's serotonergic network mediates diverse behavioral actions over both relatively short (minutes-hours) and long period of time (days-weeks) remains a major challenge for neuroscience. Our relative ignorance is largely due to the lack of technologies with robustness, reversibility, and spatio-temporal control. Recently, we have(More)
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its(More)
Compared with apoE2 and E3, apoE4 increases the risk of cognitive impairments and of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE4 interacts with female sex, further increasing AD risk. Previously, we showed that female Apoe-/- mice are more susceptible to apoE4-induced cognitive deficits than male mice. Androgens protect against these deficits and apoE4 male(More)
Oxidative stress (OS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a modulatory role in synaptic plasticity and signaling pathways. Mitochondria (MT), a major source of ROS because of their involvement in energy metabolism, are important for brain function. MT-generated ROS are proposed to be responsible for a significant proportion of OS and are associated with(More)
The three major human apoE isoforms (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) are encoded by distinct alleles (ϵ2, ϵ3 and ϵ4). Compared with ϵ3, ϵ4 is associated with increased risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other conditions. In contrast, a recent study indicated an increased susceptibility to the recurring(More)
CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix. CD44 is expressed by neural stem/progenitor cells, astrocytes, and some neurons but its function in the central nervous system is unknown. To determine the role of CD44 in brain function, we behaviorally analyzed CD44-null (KO) and wild-type (WT)(More)
Drug abuse runs in families suggesting the involvement of genetic risk factors. Differences in addiction-related neurobiological systems, including learning and memory and circadian rhythms, may exist prior to developing addiction. We characterized the cognitive phenotypes and the free-running circadian period of mouse lines selectively bred for high(More)