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Sympathetic neurons depend on NGF binding to TrkA for their survival during vertebrate development. NGF deprivation initiates a transcription-dependent apoptotic response, which is suggested to require activation of the transcription factor c-Jun. Similarly, apoptosis can also be induced by selective activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. The(More)
A functional association between the peripheral nervous and the immune system in Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, is demonstrated. This association involves the neurotransmitter noradrenaline (NA), produced and released by the sympathetic nerves of the spleen. Chemical sympathectomy prior to immunization reduces splenic NA, and decreases(More)
We have investigated whether Schwann cells can be modified by gene transfer to synthesize L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), the immediate precursor in the formation of dopamine. By using a retrovirus containing a rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cDNA, we established an immortalized rodent Schwann cell line that stably expressed high levels of TH and(More)
The third child of a previously healthy woman was delivered by caesarean section. Because of intraoperative blood loss, a blood transfusion was given after the delivery. The baby was breast-fed for 6 weeks. One unit of blood came from a male in whom the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed 13 months later. On recall, the mother proved to have(More)
UNLABELLED The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system may be a potential target for the anesthetic effects of thiopental. We evaluated the mechanism of action of thiopental on the human alpha7 nAChR by using 2-electrode voltage clamp methodology. Concentration response curves for agonist were prepared in the presence of(More)
Impaired and healthy cells undergo suicide using an intrinsic genetic program. Exposure to stress-related alpha2- or beta-adrenergics for 4 or 20 h in vitro had no effect on apoptosis in splenocytes of adult Xenopus laevis, while a 4-hour coincubation of clonidine, an alpha2-agonist, with a calcium ionophore (A23187) or a phorbol diester (PMA), enhanced(More)
Plasma and brain concentrations of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 39166, were measured and compared to behavioral activity in the conditioned avoidance response paradigm (CAR). SCH 39166 was administered at two behaviorally active doses (1 mg/kg, SC and 10 mg/kg, PO) and the time course for CAR activity was compared with the plasma and brain(More)
T cell functions are impaired during defined developmental stages of amphibian metamorphosis (Marx et al., 1987). Here we show, using a fluorescent anti-human IL-2 receptor antibody and flow cytometry, that during these stages, the splenocytes of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, have a progressively diminished capacity to express IL-2(More)
A spinal cord slice preparation is described. The lumbar enlargement of weanling rats is exposed by laminectomy, the dorsal and ventral roots cut and a portion of cord consisting of about 4 segments removed and chilled to 3 degrees C. A modified tissue chopper is used to produce 400 micron dorsoventral longitudinal slices. The slices are maintained in a(More)
A previously healthy 10-year-old girl suffered sudden, binocular visual deterioration. During the next few years her neurologic and visual condition progressively worsened and she developed hypertension, seizures, ataxia, and lactic acidemia, leading to death at the age of 16 years. Bilateral optic disk pallor was followed by the loss of the foveal reflex(More)
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