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Wear debris from metal on polyethylene joint replacements causes asceptic loosening as a result of an inflammatory reaction of macrophages to micron-sized particles. Metal on metal implants, which generate nanoparticles, have been reintroduced into surgical practise in order to avoid this problem. There is a current concern about possible long-term effects(More)
The long-term biological effects of wear debris are unknown. We have investigated whether there is any evidence of cumulative mutagenic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing revision arthroplasty of predominantly metal-on-plastic total hip replacements compared with those at primary arthroplasty. There was a threefold increase in(More)
Cobalt-chromium particles and ions can induce indirect DNA damage and chromosome aberrations in human cells on the other side of a cellular barrier in tissue culture. This occurs by intercellular signalling across the barrier. We now show that the threshold for this effect depends on the metal form and the particle composition. Ionic cobalt and chromium(More)
There is currently a great interest in delayed chromosomal and other damaging effects of low-dose exposure to a variety of pollutants which appear collectively to act through induction of stress-response pathways related to oxidative stress and ageing. These have been studied mostly in the radiation field but evidence is accumulating that the mechanisms can(More)
Genomic instability is considered to be an important component in carcinogenesis. It can be caused by low-dose exposure to agents, which appear to act through induction of stress-response pathways related to oxidative stress. These agents have been studied mostly in the radiation field but evidence is accumulating that chemicals, especially heavy metals(More)
Particles of surgical cobalt chrome alloy are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human fibroblasts in vitro. In vivo orthopaedic patients are exposed to cobalt chrome particles as a result of wear of a joint replacement. Many of the wear debris particles that are produced are phagocytosed by macrophages that accumulate at the site of the worn implant and are(More)
Previous research has shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with worn implants. The type of aberration depended on the type of metal alloy in the prosthesis. We have investigated the metal-specific difference in the level of DNA damage (DNA stand breaks and alkali labile sites) induced by culturing human fibroblasts in synovial fluid(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between the incidence of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke on a national and regional level and the rate of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). SUBJECTS Patients entered onto a national primary care computerised database with a new diagnostic code of stroke or TIA between 1992 and 1995. METHODS Analysis of data(More)
The use of nanoparticles in medicine is ever increasing, and it is important to understand their targeted and non-targeted effects. We have previously shown that nanoparticles can cause DNA damage to cells cultured below a cellular barrier without crossing this barrier. Here, we show that this indirect DNA damage depends on the thickness of the cellular(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this study was to establish the difference in burden of cerebrovascular disease across the different health regions of the United Kingdom and to determine whether the initial management of new cases of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) was uniform across the United Kingdom: METHODS The General Practice Research(More)