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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with important endogenous and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects. Given this, it is of interest to investigate factors that modulate IL-10 levels in the central nervous system. IL-10 is released after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of microglia. Microglia also express functional glutamate receptors and in(More)
Microglia in the brain possess dynamic processes that continually sample the surrounding parenchyma and respond to local insults by rapidly converging on the site of an injury. One of the chemotaxic agents responsible for this response is ATP. Here we show that the transmitter glutamate is another such chemotaxic agent. Microglia exposed to glutamate(More)
Acute administration of clozapine has been reported to activate the locus coeruleus (LC) and beta-adrenoceptor-dependent Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Haloperidol is reported to exhibit a similar acute effect on LC firing and beta-adrenoceptor dependent Fos immunoreactivity in the mPFC but only at high doses. We(More)
RATIONALE Atypical antipsychotics improve cognitive function, including working memory, in schizophrenia. Some atypical antipsychotics have been reported to activate the locus coeruleus and induce beta-adrenoceptor antagonist sensitive c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study investigated the effects of(More)
The chakragati (ckr) mouse has been proposed as a model of aspects of schizophrenia. The mice, created serendipitously as a result of a transgenic insertional mutation, exhibit spontaneous circling, hyperactivity, hypertone of the dopamine system, reduced social interactions, enlarged lateral ventricles, deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle(More)
Uncertainty arises in classification problems when the input pattern is not perfect or measurement error is unavoidable. In many applications, it would be beneficial to obtain an estimate of the uncertainty associated with a new observation and its membership within a particular class. Although statistical classification techniques base decision boundaries(More)
Glutamine is conditionally essential in cancer cells, being utilized as a carbon and nitrogen source for macromolecule production, as well as for anaplerotic reactions fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we demonstrated that the glutamine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) is highly expressed in prostate cancer patient samples. Using LNCaP(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has important anti-inflammatory effects and can be protective in inflammatory conditions, such as chronic pain and infection. Exploring factors that modulate IL-10 levels may provide insight into pathomechanisms of inflammatory conditions and may provide a method of neuroprotection during these conditions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)(More)
Alanine, serine, cysteine-preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2; SLC1A5) mediates uptake of glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid in rapidly proliferating tumour cells. Uptake of glutamine and subsequent glutaminolysis is critical for activation of the mTORC1 nutrient-sensing pathway, which regulates cell growth and protein translation in cancer cells.(More)
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