R N Johnston

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The formulation in 1874 of the biogenetic law by Ernst Haeckel as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" emphasized the structural similarities detected in metazoans between their developmental and ancestral forms. More recently, many workers have independently commented on the similarities observed between the behaviours displayed by dedifferentiated cancer(More)
Recent advances now permit the use of scanning acoustic microscopy for the analysis of subcellular components. By sequential viewing of identified fixed cells with acoustic, light, and electron microscopy, we have established that the acoustic microscope can readily detect such features as nuclei and nucleoli, mitochondria, and actin cables. Under optimal(More)
Expression of the oncofoetal glycoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), has been observed in a number of malignancies and is also being pursued as a target for anti-cancer therapy. This study explored the status of this biochemical entity in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in South India caused by extensive chewing habits. Squamous cell carcinoma(More)
We propose that a fundamental problem in the faithful replication of complex chromosomes of higher eukaryotes is the proper control of both the number and timing of the multiple initiations of replication on single chromosomes. When replication patterns are disrupted by any of a variety of agents, overreplication of DNA can occur. We propose a model that(More)
We have determined whether the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase (5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) varies spontaneously in gene copy number in cells in vitro. Cells were stained under nonselective conditions with fluoresceinated methotrexate, which binds quantitatively to dihydrofolate reductase. Cells with the highest(More)
The Miller spreading procedure was applied to mouse metaphase spreads of methotrexate-resistant 3T3 cells that contain large numbers of minute chromosomes and dihydrofolate reductase genes. There is substantial variation in both size and numbers of minutes in individual cells, the smallest of which (estimated as 5 X 10(3) kilobase pairs) would be undetected(More)
Amplification of myc proto-oncogenes has been reported in many human malignancies, but whether the amplified genes are properly regulated has not been well studied. Transcription factors that control gene expression are of limited abundance, and we have previously shown (Johnston, R.N., and Kucey, B.L. (1988) Science 242, 1551-1554) that amplified heat(More)
We examined the role that blockage of cells in the cell cycle may play in the stimulation of gene amplification and enhancement of drug resistance. We found that several different inhibitors of DNA synthesis, which were each able to block cells at the G1-S-phase boundary, induced an enhanced cycloheximide-sensitive synthesis of an early S-phase cell(More)
This paper reports preliminary results of the observation by acoustic microscopy of living cells in vitro. The scanning acoustic microscope uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images with submicrometer resolution. The contrast observed in acoustic micrographs of living cells depends on the acoustic properties (i.e., density, stiffness, and(More)