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The pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) mediates broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, which include inhibition of the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from macrophages. We investigated the effects of alpha-MSH, alpha-MSH(1-10), and alpha-MSH(11-13) on(More)
Several novel cyclic MSH analogs were synthesized, and their binding properties were tested on cells transiently expressing the human melanocortin-1 (MC1), MC3, MC4, and MC5 receptors. We discovered a novel substance (HS024) that showed about 20-fold selectivity and very high affinity (Ki = 0.29 nM) for the MC4 receptor. HS024 (cyclic(More)
Knowledge of melanocortins and their receptors has increased tremendously over the last few years. The cloning of five melanocortin receptors, and the discovery of two endogenous antagonists for these receptors, agouti and agouti-related peptide, have sparked intense interest in the field. Here we give a comprehensive review of the pharmacology, physiology(More)
SHU9119 and HS014 are cyclic MSH analogues which are widely used to elucidate the physiology behind the various effects of the MSH peptides and their receptors. We carefully compared the potency of SHU9119 and HS014 in cells expressing the MC receptor clones. We found that both the peptides are partial agonists for the MC1 and MC5 receptors while they are(More)
The mouse adrenocortical cell line Y1, that expresses ACTH receptors (MC2R), was used to probe the binding of ACTH and MSH peptides by using radio-labelled ACTH (1-39). The Y1 cells were found to bind [125I]-labelled ACTH (1-39) with high affinity (Kd approximately 130 pM). However, none of the melanocortin peptides NDP-MSH, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH or gamma(More)
A peptide with very high specificity for the human melanocortin MC(1) receptor identified by phage display was used as a lead for the design of new peptides. Two new peptides, MS05 and MS09, were synthesized and found to bind with sub-nanomolar affinities to the MC(1) receptor. Both these peptides showed strong agonistic activity at the MC(1) receptor. The(More)
The DNAs encoding three melanocortin receptor subtypes (melanocortin MC1 receptor, melanocortin MC3 receptor and melanocortin MC5 receptor) were expressed individually in COS (CV-1 Origin, SV40) cells to characterise their ligand binding properties. The results indicated that [125I][Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) bound to a single(More)
The behavioural effects induced by alpha-, gamma1- and gamma2-MSH peptides (0.3 and 3 nmole per rat) injected into the left ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats were compared. alpha- and gamma1-MSH caused grooming of comparable magnitude, and also additional vertical activity (rearing). By contrast gamma2-MSH caused a moderate but stable catalepsy, and(More)
We determined the binding affinities of the MSH analogues MSH-B, HP-228 and 153N-6 and of the enkephalin analogue GHRP-6 on a single eukaryotic cell line transiently expressing the human MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. Moreover, we tested the binding and cAMP response of MSH-B in comparison with alpha-MSH on murine B16 melanoma cells. Our results indicate(More)
A model is presented of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), constructed by use of an unbiased, objective method. The model is created directly from data derived from multiple sequence analysis, a low-resolution EM-projection map of rhodopsin, and the approximate membrane thickness. The model agrees well with available data concerning natural mutations of(More)