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Higher cognitive functions such as attention have been difficult to model in genetically tractable organisms. In humans, attention-distracting stimuli interfere with trace but not delay conditioning, two forms of associative learning. Attention has also been correlated with activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but its functional significance is(More)
Many studies have shown that deficits in olfactory and cognitive functions precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that olfactory testing may contribute to the early diagnosis of this disorder. Although the primary cause of PD is still unknown, epidemiological studies have revealed that its incidence is increased in(More)
Environment and experience influence defensive behaviors, but the neural circuits mediating such effects are not well understood. We describe a new experimental model in which either flight or freezing reactions can be elicited from mice by innately aversive ultrasound. Flight and freezing are negatively correlated, suggesting a competition between fear(More)
Three different subtypes of H(+)-dependent carriers (named VGLUT1-3) concentrate glutamate into synaptic vesicles before its exocytotic release. Neurons using other neurotransmitter than glutamate (such as cholinergic striatal interneurons and 5-HT neurons) express VGLUT3. It was recently reported that VGLUT3 increases acetylcholine vesicular filling,(More)
Among psychiatric disorders, depression and generalized anxiety are probably the most common stress-related illnesses. These diseases are underlain, at least partly, by dysfunctions of neurotransmitters and neurohormones, especially within the serotoninergic (5-HT) system and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which are also the targets of drugs(More)
Small focal injections of manganese ion (Mn(2+)) deep within the mouse central nervous system combined with in vivo high-resolution MRI delineate neuronal tracts originating from the site of injection. Previous work has shown that Mn(2+) can be taken up through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, transported along axons, and across synapses. Moreover, Mn(2+) is(More)
The escape behaviour induced in rats by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid (DHL) into the dorsal periaqueductal grey area (DPAG) was used as an animal model of panic attacks to investigate the effect of imipramine, a drug used for the treatment of panic disorder, on the sensitivity of 5-HT1A receptors in the DPAG. Rats given imipramine (10 mg/kg per day SC for(More)
The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 gene (VMAT2) has a crucial role in the storage and synaptic release of all monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). To evaluate the specific role of VMAT2 in 5-HT neurons, we produced a conditional ablation of VMAT2 under control of the serotonin transporter (slc6a4) promoter. VMAT2(sert-cre) mice showed a major(More)
There is considerable evidence showing that the neurodegenerative processes that lead to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) begin many years before the appearance of the characteristic motor symptoms and that impairments in olfactory, cognitive and motor functions are associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different(More)
Exercise improves the central nervous system (CNS) functions and is widely recommended for neurological patients with, e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, exercise-induced neuroprotection is an open discussion. Here, the intranasal administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 65 mg/kg) caused(More)