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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon absorption, the major portion of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide. However, consistent in vitro data on DON glucuronidation are lacking. In the present study, the metabolism of DON was investigated using liver microsomes(More)
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic(More)
Polyphenols belonging to the class of secondary metabolites of plants and microorganisms play an important role as bioactive food constituents as well as contaminants. Structure elucidation of polyphenols in plant extracts or polyphenol metabolites, especially those arising during biotransformation, still represents a challenge for analytical chemistry.(More)
Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a “carry-over” of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk, and eggs after feeding(More)
Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is widely used as an antibacterial in bar soaps. During use of these soaps, a significant portion of TCC is absorbed by humans. For the elimination from the body, glucuronidation plays a key role in both biliary and renal clearance. To investigate this metabolic pathway, we performed microsomal incubations of(More)
A novel method for the identification of glutathione/electrophile adducts that are inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was developed and applied for the analysis of the mycotoxin patulin. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a continuous-flow enzyme reactor serving as biochemical detector (BCD) in(More)
In addition to soya-derived preparations, red clover-based dietary supplements have gained considerable interest as an alternative isoflavone (IF) source. While metabolism and bioavailability of the main IF from both sources have already been investigated, studies are still lacking on the biokinetic behaviour of IF, which are present in red clover in minor(More)
Intestinal bacteria may influence bioavailability and physiological activity of dietary isoflavones. We therefore investigated the ability of human intestinal microbiota to convert irilone and genistein in vitro. In contrast to genistein, irilone was largely resistant to transformation by fecal slurries of ten human subjects. The fecal microbiota converted(More)
No evidence for phase I metabolites of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was given using HepaRG cells and different liver tissue fractions when studying metabolic conversion. Although the application of ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, led to a decreased cytotoxicity of CYN, no metabolites were detected applying high resolution mass spectrometry.(More)
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and(More)