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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon absorption, the major portion of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide. However, consistent in vitro data on DON glucuronidation are lacking. In the present study, the metabolism of DON was investigated using liver microsomes(More)
In addition to soya-derived preparations, red clover-based dietary supplements have gained considerable interest as an alternative isoflavone (IF) source. While metabolism and bioavailability of the main IF from both sources have already been investigated, studies are still lacking on the biokinetic behaviour of IF, which are present in red clover in minor(More)
No evidence for phase I metabolites of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was given using HepaRG cells and different liver tissue fractions when studying metabolic conversion. Although the application of ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, led to a decreased cytotoxicity of CYN, no metabolites were detected applying high resolution mass spectrometry.(More)
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and(More)
BACKGROUND Nasturtium (Indian cress, Tropaeolum majus) is known for its pharmacological value in the treatment of bacterial infections of the upper air tract and urinary bladder. However, scientific data on the anti-inflammatory potency in human-derived cells is missing. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of nasturtium to(More)
The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. Different steps of digestion were analyzed using salivary, gastric, and duodenal juices. The degradation and bidirectional conversion of the toxicologically relevant (R)-epimers and(More)
A novel method for the identification of glutathione/electrophile adducts that are inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was developed and applied for the analysis of the mycotoxin patulin. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a continuous-flow enzyme reactor serving as biochemical detector (BCD) in(More)
Polyphenols belonging to the class of secondary metabolites of plants and microorganisms play an important role as bioactive food constituents as well as contaminants. Structure elucidation of polyphenols in plant extracts or polyphenol metabolites, especially those arising during biotransformation, still represents a challenge for analytical chemistry.(More)
Glycitein (GLY) is a major isoflavone of soy germ which is used as a functional ingredient to enrich foods with isoflavones as well as a component of soy supplements. Since data on the metabolism of GLY are incomplete, the in vitro phase I metabolism of GLY using rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes (HLM), as well as human fecal flora was(More)
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is used as a source for isoflavone (IF) dietary supplements. In this study, we focused on the red clover IF irilone (IRI), because of its reported comparatively high bioavailability. Because the conjugative metabolism plays a key role in the elimination of IF, we investigated the species-specific differences and(More)