R. Mark Adams

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Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested(More)
 Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are(More)
Megalomyrmex Forel is a distinctive lineage of Neotropical ants, some of which are specialized parasites or predators of the fungus-growing ants Attini. Here we review and key the Central American fauna. Six new species are described from both female castes: M. brandaoi sp. n., M. fungiraptor sp. n., M. longinoi sp. n., M. milenae sp. n., M. megadrifti sp.(More)
Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate pterulaceous fungi distantly related to the Lepiotaceae.(More)
We used mark-resight data and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess movements and gene flow between Central Pacific breeding colonies of the great frigatebird, Fregata minor. Of 715 adult frigatebirds marked on Tern Island and Johnston Atoll, 21.3% were resighted at other frigatebird colonies at least 582 km away. Mark-resight data(More)
We describe the extraordinary nesting habits of the fungus-growing ant Cyphomyrmex cornutus (Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Attini) and the natural history of Megalomyrmex mondabora (Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Solenopsidini), a social parasite that inhabits nests of C. cornutus and other small attine ants. The study was carried out at two sites on the Atlantic slope(More)
Fungal cultivars of fungus-growing ants (Attini, Formicidae) are carried by dispersing queens from parent to offspring nest. This vertical cultivar transmission between generations is thought to result in long-term ant-fungus coevolution and selection for beneficial cultivar traits that maximize harvests and thus colony productivity. In contrast to this(More)
Cultivars of fungus-growing (attine) ants are vertically transmitted through inheritance from parent to offspring nest, but horizontal cultivar transfer between ant nests occurs occasionally, resulting in cultivar replacement within ant lineages. Two mechanisms could theoretically prevent the invasion of suboptimal cultivar strains and thus stabilize(More)
 A new ant species of Megalomyrmex conducts mass raids to usurp gardens of the fungus-growing ant Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, then lives in the gardens and consumes the cultivated fungus. Unlike attine ants, however, Megalomyrmex sp. does not forage for substrate to manure the gardens; therefore, when gardens become depleted, Megalomyrmex sp. must locate and(More)
Nesting in abundance on stream embankments in the wet forests of Panama, the fungus-growing ant Cyphomyrmex longiscapus sensu lato has become a model organism for the study of behavior, ecology, mating frequency, cultivar specificity, pathogenesis, and social parasitism in the attine agricultural symbiosis. Allozyme markers, morphology, and other evidence(More)