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Although squid are among the most versatile swimmers and rely on a unique locomotor system, little is known about the swimming mechanics and behavior of most squid, especially those that swim at low speeds in inshore waters. Shallow-water brief squid Lolliguncula brevis, ranging in size from 1.8 to 8.9 cm in dorsal mantle length (DML), were placed in flumes(More)
Because of the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion, squid are considered to be at a competitive disadvantage compared with fishes, which generally depend on forms of undulatory/oscillatory locomotion. Some squid, such as the brief squid Lolliguncula brevis, swim at low speeds in shallow-water complex environments, relying heavily on fin activity.(More)
A biomechanical study of 13 runners which consisted of 2 male sprinters, 5 experienced joggers, and 6 elite long-distance runners were studied. We obtained hip, knee, and ankle joints motions in the sagittal plane and electromyographic data from specific muscle groups. As the speed of gait increased, the length of stance phase progressively decreased from(More)
An electromyographic study of the lower extremity muscles was undertaken in order to compare jogging, running, and sprinting. The study demonstrated that as the speed of gait increased, the support phase decreased, from 620 msec for walking to 260 msec for jogging to 220 msec for running to 140 msec for sprinting. The electromyographic data demonstrated(More)
The role of the calf muscles during the single-limb stance phase of gait was assessed in fifteen normal subjects and in seven with either an amputation or a neuromuscular deficit. Normal activity of the muscles, paralysis by nerve blocks, and stability versus instability of the ankle were studied. Pelvic displacement and velocity, step length, and step time(More)
A three-quarter prone, operative approach to the pineal region is described: the three-quarter prone, operated-side-down position. This approach avoids the disadvantages of the approaches from other directions to this region and provides a comfortable position for the surgeon and assistant, minimal retraction of the parietal-occipital lobe, and access to(More)
The initiation of gait was studied utilizing electromyography, force-plate data, measurements of walking velocities, and ranges of motion of joints, all of which demonstrated that gait is initiated by the body becoming unbalanced in such a way as to permit a subject to pick one foot the ground in order to take the first step. The subsequent transition of(More)
The foot has been studied in walking, running and jogging using high speed cinema photography in the laboratory for gait analysis in the Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, San Francisco. During running, as well as in walking, the extrinsic toe flexors restrain progression of the tibia. The extrinsic extensors accelerate the tibia over the fixed foot.(More)
The chick embryo is a useful experimental model for investigating neural dysraphism. Windowing at 26 h incubation is by itself teratogenic, resulting in predominantly neural tube defects. A histological study of a regular series of specimens between pre-neurulation and later stages was undertaken. Open brain defects occurred at every stage after the(More)
Because of the nature of the alignment the joints of the lower extremity, any significant loss of alignment or function will place increased stress on the remaining joints. An ankle arthrodesis must be carefully aligned into slight valgus and neutral dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and the same degree of external rotation as the opposite leg. A subtalar(More)