R. M. Williams

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Proteins can exist in a trinity of structures: the ordered state, the molten globule, and the random coil. The five following examples suggest that native protein structure can correspond to any of the three states (not just the ordered state) and that protein function can arise from any of the three states and their transitions. (1) In a process that(More)
We obtained transgenic maize plants by using high-velocity microprojectiles to transfer genes into embryongenic cells. Two selectable genes were used to confer resistance to either chlorsulfuron or phosphinothricin, and genes encoding either E. coli beta-glucuronidase or firefly luciferase were used as markers to provide convenient assays for(More)
Intrinsically disordered proteins carry out various biological functions while lacking ordered secondary and/or tertiary structure. In order to find general intrinsic properties of amino acid residues that are responsible for the absence of ordered structure in intrinsically disordered proteins we surveyed 517 amino acid scales. Each of these scales was(More)
The present work reports the results obtained from in vivo studies on the distribution and behavior of nuclei of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi growing in symbiosis with tomato root organ cultures (AM monoxenic cultures). Upon staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and two-photon microscopy (2PM) observations, symbiotic thick runner hyphae(More)
To investigate the determinants of protein order and disorder, three primary and one derivative database of intrinsically disordered proteins were compiled. The segments in each primary database were characterized by one of the following: X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or circular dichroism (CD). The derivative database was based(More)
Many large-scale applications of the organophosphate pesticide malathion have led to widespread environmental contamination. Concentrations are found in the environment well above those which are harmful to humans and environmental organisms. No current method of detection for this pesticide is rapid, cost-effective, and specific for malathion. Therefore,(More)
BACKGROUND Overexpression of the high-mobility group, HMG I/Y, family of chromatin oncoproteins has been implicated as a clinical diagnostic marker for both neoplastic cellular transformation and increased metastatic potential of several human cancers. These minor groove DNA-binding oncoproteins are thus an attractive target for anti-tumor chemotherapy.(More)
In order to determine whether genetic background influences natural resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a series of 16 different strains of inbred mice were challenged intraperitoneally with P. aeruginosa. Significantly greater natural resistance to infection was found in mice of C3H background genome than in mice of A background genome. This phenomenon(More)
Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE)(More)