R. M. Walters

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Plant-derived oils consisting of triglycerides and small amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) are commonly used in skincare regimens. FFAs are known to disrupt skin barrier function. The objective of this study was to mechanistically study the effects of FFAs, triglycerides and their mixtures on skin barrier function. The effects of oleic acid (OA), glyceryl(More)
The structure of the stratum corneum (SC) and the corresponding skin barrier develops from before birth up to about 4 years of age. Large subject-to-subject variability within an age group requires a large population to observe trends in skin barrier properties over time. Barrier function, quantified by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC thickness, was(More)
Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC) after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational(More)
The barrier function of skin is primarily provided by the lamellar lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC), which has been shown in previous infrared (IR) and related studies to consist predominantly of ordered lipids packed in orthorhombic and hexagonal domains. In the current work, we investigate the effects of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl(More)
To image SDS distribution across different skin regions, to compare the permeability difference between porcine and human skin, and to evaluate the interaction between SDS and skin. Full thickness porcine and human skin was treated with acyl chain perdeuterated SDS (SDS-d25) at room temperature and at 34 °C for 3, 24 and 40 h. SDS distribution in skin was(More)
Oleic acid (OA) is well-known to affect the function of the skin barrier. In this study, the molecular interactions between OA and model stratum corneum (SC) lipids consisting of ceramide, cholesterol, and palmitic acid (PA) were investigated with Langmuir monolayer and associated techniques. Mixtures with different OA/SC lipid compositions were spread at(More)
INTRODUCTION The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to cleansers that contain surfactants can create polymer-surfactant complexes that are less irritating to the skin than commercially available mild cleansers. Our objective was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of a test foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs with a(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of infant and toddler sleep patterns. Data were collected on 841 children (aged from birth to 36 months) via a free, publicly available, commercially sponsored iPhone app. Analyses were conducted on caregiver recordings of 156 989 sleep sessions across a 19-month period. Detailed visualizations of the(More)
The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds. Here, we report the results of CITs collected by JOHNSON & JOHNSON Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ), part of an extensive tiered program to evaluate(More)