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The buccal ganglia of Aplysia contain a central pattern generator (CPG) that organizes the rhythmic movements of the radula and buccal mass during feeding. Many of the cellular and synaptic elements of this CPG have been identified and characterized. However, the roles that specific cellular and synaptic properties play in generating patterns of activity(More)
The terrestrial ring current is an electric current flowing toroidally around the Earth, centered at the equatorial plane and at altitudes of ϳ10,000 – 60,000 km. Changes in this current are responsible for global decreases in the Earth's surface magnetic field, which are known as geomagnetic storms. Intense geomagnetic storms have severe effects on(More)
Earth's diffuse aurora occurs over a broad latitude range and is primarily caused by the precipitation of low-energy (0.1-30-keV) electrons originating in the central plasma sheet, which is the source region for hot electrons in the nightside outer magnetosphere. Although generally not visible, the diffuse auroral precipitation provides the main source of(More)
Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport. However, the precise(More)
The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside(More)
During geomagnetically disturbed periods the precipitational loss of energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt of the earth can readily provide the major ionization source for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. One particularly intense manifestation of this interaction between the radiation belts and the lower atmosphere is the relativistic(More)
The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are(More)
Ground-based observations have shown that Jupiter is a two-component source of microwave radio emission: thermal atmospheric emission and synchrotron emission from energetic electrons spiralling in Jupiter's magnetic field. Later in situ measurements confirmed the existence of Jupiter's high-energy electron-radiation belts, with evidence for electrons at(More)
Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in(More)
A time dependent radial diffusion model is used to quantify the competing effects of inward radial diffusion and losses on the distribution of the outer zone relativistic electrons. The rate of radial diffusion is parameterized by K p with the loss time as an adjustable parameter. Comparison with HEEF data taken over 500 Combined Release and Radiation(More)