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Leptin, the protein product of the obese (ob) gene, has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of food intake. As depressive episodes are frequently characterized by loss of appetite, reduced food intake and weight loss, altered leptin secretion might also be expected in patients with depression. Therefore, we examined nocturnal (10.00 p.m. to 7.00(More)
OBJECTIVE Current hypotheses hold that mechanisms underlying abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function are causal factors in the precipitation of depression. If this is the case, then normalization of initially disturbed HPA regulation should indicate a good prognosis and persistent HPA dysregulation should be associated with a greater(More)
In patients with depression, enhanced secretion of ACTH and cortisol, a reduction in slow wave sleep (SWS) and a blunted nocturnal growth hormone (GH) surge have been described and attributed, at least partly, to an elevation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), hence a shift in the ratio between growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and CRH. We(More)
The synthetic hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) stimulates growth hormone (GH) release in animals and man. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) has the same effect. In addition, pulsatile administration of GHRH in normal men results in increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) and blunted cortisol levels. The effect of GHRP on nocturnal hormone secretion(More)
After repeated intravenous (i.v.) boluses of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) we found recently increases of growth hormone (GH), corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels and of the amount of stage 2 sleep. In clinical use, oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.) and sublingual (s.l.) routes of administration have advantages over i.v. administration. We(More)
Aging and menopause are associated with alterations of the sleep EEG, while age-related changes of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remain controversial. Major depression is also associated with typical sleep-endocrine changes, including enhanced activity of the HPA axis, while an influence of age and gender on these alterations is less clear.(More)
Anxiolytic and sedative effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are thought to involve inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Enhanced secretion of CRH plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of major depression, characterized by sleep disturbances, anxiety and loss of appetite. We examined for the first time in young men effects of intravenous(More)
Aging is associated with decreased sleep continuity, slow wave sleep (SWS), growth hormone (GH) release and an increased hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a strong stimulus for sleep. To determine if aging affects the response to TSD, for the first time the combined effects of TSD on conventional(More)
Significantly diminished intellectual functioning, as indicated by appropriately administered IQ tests with scores below 70, is a frequent mental handicap leading to severe social disadvantages and serves as a paradigm for molecular genetic research of complex disorders and traits due to its multitude of known and unknown, genetic as well as environmental(More)
Sleep-endocrine regulation in humans involves high activity of the somatotropic axis at the beginning of the night and an increase in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system during the night. Gender differences were examined with regard to sleep-endocrine regulation in young healthy controls (10 men, 9 women). The sleep EEG was recorded(More)