R. M. Damian Holsinger

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Beta-secretase cleavage represents the first step in the generation of Abeta polypeptides and initiates the amyloid cascade that leads to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. By comparative Western blot analysis, we show a 2.7-fold increase in protein expression of the beta-secretase enzyme BACE in the brain cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients as(More)
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. One pathological characteristic is excessive neuronal loss in specific regions of the brain. Among the areas most severely affected are the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their projection regions, the hippocampus and cortex. Neurotrophic factors,(More)
Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein by beta -and gamma-secretases results in the production of Alzheimer's disease (AD) Abeta amyloid peptides. Modulation of secretase activity is being investigated as a potential therapeutic approach. Recent studies with human brain have revealed that the beta-secretase protein, BACE, is increased in(More)
The axons of the neurons in the medial and lateral components of the entorhinal cortex (MEC and LEC) form the medial and lateral perforant paths (MPP and LPP) which represent the major source of cortical input to the hippocampus. Anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological studies have shown that MPP and LPP are distinct. Unfortunately, assessment of the(More)
Short-term electrical kindling, a widely used experimental model of epilepsy, appears to have little effect on behavior. The effects of extended kindling are largely unknown. Rats implanted with kindling electrodes in amygdala (AM) or perforant path (PP) received 300 kindling trials over approximately 7 months, and were tested in the Morris watermaze after(More)
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a technique that allows for the simultaneous detection of expression levels of the entire genome without a priori knowledge of gene sequences, was used to examine the transcriptional expression pattern of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pairwise comparison between the Tg2576 and nontransgenic(More)
Cholesterol is one of multiple factors, other than familial genetic mutations, that can influence amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) metabolism and accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). The effect of a high-cholesterol diet on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in brain has not been thoroughly studied. This study was designed to further investigate the(More)
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cholinergic neuron function and survival. In Alzheimer's disease, BDNF mRNA and protein are decreased in basal forebrain cholinergic neuron target tissues such as cortex and hippocampus. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrate that BDNF is synthesized in basal forebrain, supplying cholinergic neurons with a local as(More)
Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) is a multifunctional protein, with proposed roles as the precursor protein of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), and as the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease in PEBP mRNA in CA1 region of AD hippocampus. The current study demonstrates that(More)
To assess the diagnostic utility of CSF BACE1 activity for discriminating Alzheimer disease (AD) from other dementias, particularly Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the authors studied 26 patients with sporadic CJD, 21 patients with AD, and 21 patients with various non-AD, non-CJD dementias (DCs). CSF BACE1 activity was elevated in AD in comparison with DC(More)