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Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach, is increasingly used to recruit participants from hard-to-reach populations, such as injection drug users (IDUs). Using RDS, we recruited IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juárez, two Mexican cities bordering San Diego, CA and El Paso, TX, respectively, and compared recruitment dynamics,(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. METHODS We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute(More)
BACKGROUND FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. METHODS FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected(More)
Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV(More)
In 2008, 400 males ≥18 years old who paid or traded for sex with a female sex worker (FSW) in Tijuana, Mexico, in the past 4 months completed surveys and HIV/STI testing; 30 also completed qualitative interviews. To analyze environmental sources of HIV vulnerability among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, we used mixed methods to investigate correlates of(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW). METHODS FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI. (More)
OBJECTIVE Sex work is regulated in Tijuana, Mexico, but only half of the city's female sex workers (FSWs) are registered with the municipal health department, which requires regular screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We examined correlates of registration to determine if it confers measurable health(More)
BACKGROUND Among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, U.S. deportation is associated with HIV transmission. Changing drug use behaviors following deportation, including the use of new drugs, may increase HIV risk but are understudied. We identify correlates of trying new drugs following male IDUs' most recent U.S. deportation to Mexico. (More)
BACKGROUND We studied prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. METHODS IDUs aged > or =18 years were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent standardized interviews, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing and(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008-2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. METHODS FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection(More)