Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the… (More)
This note contains some remarks on Ligtvoet's (Psychometrika, 77:479-494, 2012) treatment of the isotonic partial credit model. The Proposition relating to the observable property MWI is shown to be false.
In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable. However, the PCM is very restrictive with respect to the… (More)
Two assumptions that are relevant to many applications using item response theory are the assumptions of monotonicity (M) and invariant item ordering (IIO). A latent class model is proposed for ordinal items with inequality constraints on the class-specific item means. This model is used as a tool for testing for violations of M and IIO. A Gibbs sampling… (More)