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w ww ww w. .f fr ro on nt ti ie er rs si in ne ec co ol lo og gy y. .o or rg g W ind energy has become an increasingly important sector of the renewable energy industry, and may help to satisfy a growing worldwide demand for electricity (Pasqualetti et al. 2004; GAO 2005; Manville 2005). Environmental benefits of wind energy accrue from the replacement of(More)
The system of Doppler weather surveillance radars known as WSR-88D or more popularly as NEXRAD helped transform radar ornithology in the United States into a field that today attracts considerable attention from scientists and laypersons alike. As interest in ornithological applications of WSR-88D grows, so does the need to provide perspective on its use.(More)
Radar tracking of individual migrating birds flying over a large alternating-current antenna system showed that the birds turned or changed altitude more frequently when the antenna system was operating than when it was not. These results suggest that birds sense low-intensity alternating-current electromagnetic fields during nocturnal migratory flight.
Horizontal flight speeds relative to the air (air speeds) of about 3,500 birds flying at night over southeastern New York State were measured with a tracking radar, taking special care to obtain accurate local wind measurements. Results were in agreement with previous data (Larkin et al. 1979) indicating that migrating birds sometimes fly at slower speeds(More)
Aeroecology is a discipline that embraces and integrates the domains of atmospheric science, ecology, earth science, geography, computer science, computational biology, and engineering. The unifying concept that underlies this emerging discipline is its focus on the planetary boundary layer, or aerosphere, and the myriad of organisms that, in large part,(More)
Midair collsions between birds and aircraft pose a hazard for both. While observing migrating birds with a tracking radar, we find that birds often react, by taking evasive maneuvers, at distances of 200-300 m to both searchlight beams and the approach of a small airplane with its landing lights on. Appropriately arranged lights on aircraft should decrease(More)
Based upon new data and re-analysis of previous data, some results concerning migration of “birds” at night are now attributed to insects. In particular, slowly flying radar targets over land (Larkin and Thompson 1980) and, by analogy, over the ocean (Larkin et al. 1979) are shown to lack wing beat patterns of birds and the appearance of birds when viewed(More)
1. During two fall migration seasons, a large number of flying targets were tracked by a radar mounted on an oceanographic research vessel. Obervations were made in September and October in a region extending from the New England coast to the area south and east of Bermuda (Figs. 1 and 3). Accurate local wind measurements were made at short intervals during(More)
Lore and indirect evidence from previous studies suggest that nocturnally migrating vertebrates (perhaps bats but mostly birds) sometimes fly widely dispersed from each other, but in flocks. The observations include stationary and scanning radars, recordings of flight calls, and watching the moon with telescopes. Direct observations of such flocks have been(More)