Learn More
The brain and the immune system are the two major adaptive systems of the body. During an immune response the brain and the immune system "talk to each other" and this process is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Two major pathway systems are involved in this cross-talk: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system(More)
Interleukin-6, an inflammatory cytokine, is characterized by pleiotropy and redundancy of action. Apart from its hematologic, immune, and hepatic effects, it has many endocrine and metabolic actions. Specifically, it is a potent stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is under the tonic negative control of glucocorticoids. It acutely(More)
Inbred Lewis (LEW/N) female rats develop an arthritis in response to group A streptococcal cell wall peptidoglycan polysaccharide (SCW), which mimics human rheumatoid arthritis. Histocompatible Fischer (F344/N) rats do not develop arthritis in response to the same SCW stimulus. To evaluate this difference in inflammatory reactivity, we examined the function(More)
We have recently found that susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis in Lewis (LEW/N) rats is due, in part, to defective inflammatory and stress mediator-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Conversely, the relative arthritis resistance of histocompatible Fischer (F344/N) rats is related to their(More)
Adenosine (ADO) exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In this paper we address the possibility that these effects are partly mediated by inhibition of the secretion of IL-12, a proinflammatory cytokine and a major inducer of Th1 responses. We demonstrate that 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonspecific ADO analogue, and(More)
IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, stimulate Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The development of some allergic reactions, infections, and tumors are associated with excessive histamine production and a shift toward Th2 responses. Here we address the possibility that this association is causally linked, at least in part, to modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 production(More)
High levels of immunoreactive cyclooxygenase (Cox; prostaglandin H synthase) are present in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We now show that the recently identified inducible isoform of Cox, Cox-2, is expressed in synovia from patients with RA. To further explore modulation of the Cox isoforms in RA synovial tissues, we examined the(More)
The concept of an integrated bidirectionally regulated neuroendocrine-immune adaptive response to stress has strong experimental support. The quality and intensity of this coordinated response to stress varies depending upon age, gender, reproductive status, and other genetically determined factors as well as the types and magnitudes of environmental(More)
Identification of specific genetic loci that contribute to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans has been hampered by several factors, including: i) multiple interacting genetic loci contributing to susceptibility; ii) complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors; ill) genetic heterogeneity; and iv) low pene-trance. We have,(More)
Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats is a widely used autoimmune experimental model with many features similar to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To identify potential genetic regulatory mechanisms in RA, we conducted genome-wide linkage analysis in F2 progeny of arthritis-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) and relatively resistant Fischer 344 (F344) inbred rats.(More)