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We investigated whether a learning impairment after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was associated with alterations in molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Adult male rats with moderate CCI to the left parietal cortex, tested in a Morris water maze (MWM) beginning at postinjury day 10, showed impaired cognitive(More)
IL-8 involvement in neutrophil activation and chemotaxis may be important in inflammatory responses within the central nervous system, secondary to meningitis, encephalitis, and traumatic injury. The source of IL-8 within the brain during these inflammatory processes, however, is unknown. To explore the role of microglia in the production of IL-8, human(More)
The metabolic fate of [1,2 13C]-labeled glucose was determined in male control and unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injured rats at 3.5 and 24 h after surgery. The concentration of 13C-labeled glucose, lactate, glutamate and glutamine were measured in the injured and contralateral cortex. CCI animals showed a 145% increase in 13C lactate in the(More)
Sodium pyruvate (SP) treatment initiated within 5 min post-injury is neuroprotective in a rat model of unilateral cortical contusion injury (CCI). The current studies examined: (1) effects of delayed SP treatments (1000 mg/kg, i.p., at 1, 12 and 24h), (2) effects of single (1h) or multiple (1, 12 and 24h) ethyl pyruvate treatments (EP; at 20 or 40 mg/kg,(More)
Prior work indicates that cerebral glycolysis is impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and that pyruvate treatment acutely after TBI can improve cerebral metabolism and is neuroprotective. Since extracellular levels of glucose decrease during periods of increased cognitive demand and exogenous glucose improves cognitive performance, we(More)
The Apollo 14 lunar module landed in a region of the lunar highlands that is part of a widespread blanket of ejecta surrounding the mare Imbrium basin. Samples were collected from the regolith developed on a nearly level plain, a ridge 100 meters high, and a blocky ejecta deposit around a young crater. Large boulders in the vicinity of the landing site are(More)
OBJECT Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy has been shown to reduce mortality by 50% in a prospective randomized trial of severely brain injured patients conducted at the authors' institution. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of HBO on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolism, and intracranial pressure (ICP), and to(More)
Using human fetal microglial cell cultures, we found that the gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RANTES (regulated upon activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted) production through the protein kinase C signaling pathway and that activation of transcription nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was required for(More)
Microarray technology was employed to determine the differential pattern of gene expression within the hippocampus as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The validity of the microarray data was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR. Following either moderate or severe lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were studied 0.5, 4, and 24 h after injury. In(More)