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The useful field of view is defined as the visual area in which information can be acquired within one eye fixation. We studied visual search within this context and found a reduction in the size of the field as a function of age. This loss, however, was recovered partially with practice. Standard acuity and perimetric tests of visual field, although(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Laryngotracheal injury or edema in the setting of intubation may narrow the upper airway and predispose toward postextubation stridor. The presence or absence of an audible airleak when the sealing balloon cuff of the endotracheal tube is deflated has been demonstrated to be a marker of laryngotracheal edema in high-risk patients. We(More)
In a longitudinal cohort of approximately 700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that(More)
Rates of developmental and respiratory diseases are disproportionately high in underserved, minority populations such as those in New York City's Washington Heights, Harlem, and the South Bronx. Blacks and Latinos in these neighborhoods represent high risk groups for asthma, adverse birth outcomes, impaired development, and some types of cancer. The(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor widely used in the production of plastics. Increasing evidence indicates that in utero BPA exposure affects sexual differentiation and behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We hypothesized that BPA may disrupt epigenetic programming of gene expression in the brain.(More)
Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation (heritable changes in gene expression that occur in the absence of alterations in DNA sequences) may in part mediate the complex gene-by-environment interactions that can lead to asthma. The variable natural history of asthma (i.e., incidence and remission of symptoms) may be a result of epigenetic changes,(More)
Three experiments were conducted to assess the role of endogenous opioids in controlling mating behavior and sexual reward in the male rat. In Experiment 1 SC administration of naloxone (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced mounting and ejaculation in male rats tested 14, but not 7 days, after castration. In Experiment 2 naloxone (5.0 mg/kg)(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Several studies have found associations between diesel exposure, respiratory symptoms, and/or impaired pulmonary function. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important components of diesel exhaust and other combustion sources, may be associated with respiratory symptoms in young(More)
Inhibitory optogenetics was used to examine the roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL), the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) and the PL projections to the NAcore in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Rats were microinjected into the PL or NAcore with an adeno-associated virus containing halorhodopsin or archaerhodopsin. After 12 days of cocaine(More)
In a longitudinal cohort of ,700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (.25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks(More)