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Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) swimming kinematics was studied in a large water tunnel at controlled swimming velocities (U). Quantified kinematic variables included the tail-beat frequency, stride length (l), caudal amplitude, yaw, the propulsive wavelength, the speed of the propulsive wave (C) and the sweepback angle of the pectoral fins. In general,(More)
Linear arrays in lead isotope space for mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) converge on a single end-member component that has intermediate lead, strontium, and neodymium isotope ratios compared with the total database for oceanic island basalts (OIBs) and MORBs. The MORB data are consistent with the presence of a common mantle source region for OIBs that is(More)
Analyses of fossil mammal faunas from 2945 localities in the United States demonstrate that the geographic ranges of individual species shifted at different times, in different directions, and at different rates in response to late Quaternary environmental fluctuations. The geographic pattern of faunal provinces was similar for the late Pleistocene and late(More)
The body temperatures (Tb) of nine yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were monitored while fish swam in a large water tunnel at controlled velocities (U) and ambient temperatures (Ta). Monitoring Tb during step changes in Ta at constant U permitted estimation of the thermal rate coefficient (k), an index of heat transfer. In the yellowfin, k is dependent on(More)
To learn about muscle function in two species of tuna (yellowfin Thunnus albacares and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis), a series of electromyogram (EMG) electrodes was implanted down the length of the body in the internal red (aerobic) muscle. Additionally, a buckle force transducer was fitted around the deep caudal tendons on the same side of the peduncle as(More)
Analysis of 2479 ESTs from Vitis vinifera berry tissue and 2438 from leaf revealed that 1% of the ESTs match to known Vitis proteins, 72% to plant proteins, 11% to non-plant, and 16% had no match (P[N]>0.5). The levels of redundancy were similar in the leaf and berry libraries. Only 12% of the genes matched by the ESTs were common to both libraries(More)
During development of the vertebrate head neural crest cells emigrate from the hindbrain and populate the branchial arches, giving rise to distinct skeletal elements and muscle connective tissues in each arch. The production of neural crest from the hindbrain is discontinuous and crest cells destined for different arches, carrying different positional cues,(More)
  • R L Graham
  • The Journal of the American Academy of…
  • 1997
Malunion of a distal radius fracture may result in functional limitation and pain. Reestablishing the geometry of the metaphysis and the alignment of the articular surface, restoring the relationship at the distal radioulnar joint, and respecting the soft-tissue envelope are elements of a successful reconstruction. The author describes a systematic approach(More)
Trends in global lower tropospheric temperature derived from satellite observations since 1979 show less warming than trends based on surface meteorological observations. Independent radiosonde observations of surface and tropospheric temperatures confirm that, since 1979, there has been greater warming at the surface than aloft in the tropics. Associated(More)