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Morphine and its major metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide, were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to rats. The antinociceptive effects were assessed in the tail-flick and hot-plate tests as well as the writhing test. Ventilatory effects were studied in halothane-anaesthetized rats. Based on calculated ED50 values,(More)
The effects of the major morphine metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide, on nociception were assessed by the tail-flick, hot-plate and writhing tests in the rat. Morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) 1.1 x 10(-9) mol (0.5 micrograms) or saline was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) followed by a second(More)
The hypothesis tested was that inhibition of the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway may represent a potential central mechanism of action for acetaminophen (paracetamol). Spinal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 0.5 nmol), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA, 0.1 nmol) or substance P (SP, 0.5 nmol) to the rat provoked a(More)
BACKGROUND These studies were undertaken to investigate the site and nature of the antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) and paracetamol in the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS Different nociceptive test models were employed: the tail-flick and hot-plate tests (thermoreceptors), the writhing test (visceral(More)
The ethacrynic acid-induced writhing response (WR) in the rat was studied after microinjections of diclofenac 0.1 ng-1 microgram/0.5 microliter (0.32 pmol to 3.2 nmol) into several brain regions involved in control of nociceptive behavior. The WR was inhibited after injections into the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), ventromedial thalamus (VM), medial(More)
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