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In order to understand the origin, phylogeny, and phylogeography of the species Cervus elaphus, we examined the DNA sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 51 populations of deer from the entire distribution area of Cervinae with an emphasis on Europe and Asia. Several methods, including maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and nested(More)
Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One year of CALIPSO level 2 version 2 data are analyzed to assess the veracity of the CALIPSO aerosol-type(More)
Despite the fact that mollusc species play an important role in many aquatic ecosystems, little is known about their biodiversity and conservation genetics. Freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) populations are seriously declining all over Europe and a variety of conservation programs are being established to support the remaining(More)
Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers were applied to infer the phylogeography, intraspecific diversity and dynamics of the distributional history of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) with focus on its central and northern European distribution range. Phylogenetic and nested clade analyses revealed at least four major mtDNA lineages, which(More)
[1] A global 2-month comparison is presented between the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for both cloud detection and cloud top height (CTH) retrievals. Both CALIOP and MODIS are part of the NASA A-Train constellation of satellites and provide continuous near-coincident(More)
Overhunting of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in eastern Switzerland led to its extinction in the second half of the 17th century. Natural recolonization must have taken place later, because red deer were seen again in the canton of the Grisons (eastern Switzerland) in the 1870s. According to historical data, three different populations could have served as the(More)
Freshwater pearl mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera) are among the most critically threatened bivalve molluscs worldwide. An understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity is crucial for the development of integrative conservation strategies. We used microsatellites to study the genetic diversity and differentiation of 14 populations of M.(More)
European grayling populations in Bavaria have shown steady declines during the last 10–20years. In order to provide guidelines for conservation strategies and future management programs, we investigated the genetic structure of 15 grayling populations originating from three major Central European drainages (the Danube, the Elbe and the Rhine/Main) using 20(More)
Using measurements obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, relationships between layer-integrated depolarization ratio (delta) and layer-integrated attenuated backscatter (gamma) are established for moderately thick clouds of both ice and water. A new and simple form of the delta-gamma relation(More)
Noninvasive genetics based on microsatellite markers has become an indispensable tool for wildlife monitoring and conservation research over the past decades. However, microsatellites have several drawbacks, such as the lack of standardisation between laboratories and high error rates. Here, we propose an alternative single-nucleotide polymorphism(More)