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Autophagy is a diverse family of processes that transport cytoplasm and organelles into the lysosome/vacuole lumen for degradation. During macroautophagy cargo is packaged in autophagosomes that fuse with the lysosome/vacuole. During microautophagy cargo is directly engulfed by the lysosome/vacuole membrane. Piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN)(More)
The molecular details of the biogenesis of double-membraned autophagosomes are poorly understood. We identify the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAA-adenosine triphosphatase Cdc48 and its substrate-recruiting cofactor Shp1/Ubx1 as novel components needed for autophagosome biogenesis. In mammals, the Cdc48 homologue p97/VCP and the Shp1 homologue p47 mediate Golgi(More)
Atg18p and Atg21p are two highly homologous yeast autophagy proteins. Atg18p functions in both autophagy and the selective Cvt-pathway, while the function of Atg21p is restricted to the Cvt-pathway. The yeast genome encodes with Ygr223cp (Hsv2p), a third member of this protein family. So far no function has been assigned to Ygr223cp. By colocalization with(More)
Atg18 and Atg21 are homologous S. cerevisiae autophagy proteins. Atg18 is essential for biogenesis of Cvt vesicles and autophagosomes, while Atg21 is only essential for Cvt vesicle formation. We found that mutated Atg18-(FTTGT), which lost almost completely its binding to PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2), is non-functional during the Cvt pathway but active(More)
β-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides (PROPPINs), a eukaryotic WD-40 motif-containing protein family, bind via their predicted β-propeller fold the polyphosphoinositides PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) using a conserved FRRG motif. PROPPINs play a key role in macroautophagy in addition to other functions. We present the 3.0-Å crystal structure of(More)
Autophagosomes and Cvt vesicles are limited by two membrane layers. The biogenesis of these unconventional vesicles and the origin of their membranes are hardly understood. Here we identify in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trs85, a nonessential component of the TRAPP complexes, to be required for the biogenesis of Cvt vesicles. The TRAPP complexes function in(More)
Nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions are formed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through interactions between Vac8 in the vacuole membrane and Nvj1 in the perinuclear ER. Upon starvation, vesicles containing part of the nucleus emanate from these contact sites and finally pinch off into invaginations of the vacuole. Due to its morphological similarity to(More)
Autophagosome biogenesis requires two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems. One couples ubiquitin-like Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine, and the other couples ubiquitin-like Atg12 to Atg5. Atg12~Atg5 then forms a heterodimer with Atg16. Membrane recruitment of the Atg12~Atg5/Atg16 complex defines the Atg8 lipidation site. Lipidation requires a PI3P-containing(More)
Efficient detection and removal of superfluous or damaged organelles are crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis and to assure cell survival. Growing evidence shows that organelles or parts of them can be removed by selective subtypes of otherwise unselective macroautophagy and microautophagy. This requires both the adaptation of the core autophagic(More)
Rapid estimation of the macroautophagi crate has become of great importance over the past few years. A variety of methods to follow autophagy were established both in S. cerevisiae and the mammalian system. In yeast,measuring the breakdown of GFP-Atg8,and in mammalian cells counting the increase of LC3 puncta, have become the most commonly used assays to(More)