R. Kowalczyk

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The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination of Microtus rodents, regardless of sex, age, month and(More)
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is(More)
The European bison is the largest terrestrial mammal in Europe. After extinction in the wild at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was re-introduced to Białowieża Forest and other woodlands in Eastern Europe. In this paper, we analysed the movements of European bison beyond the continuous woodlands of the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland) between 1964(More)
European bison, the largest mammal in Europe, after being exterminated in the wild and then restored during the 20th century is still listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) as a species vulnerable to extinction. However, the increasing number of European bison, through creation of new and expansion(More)
According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual(More)
Patch use can illustrate the contributions that forage quality and foraging risk make in shaping foraging decisions made under the risk of being killed. We aimed to determine whether forage selection by European bison Bison bonasus was state-dependent in being shaped by risk (wolf predation or human poaching/culling avoidance) or nutrient quality at two(More)
Sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, is a highly contagious worldwide mite infection responsible for epizootic skin disease in populations of wild and domestic mammals. It causes skin disorders that may lead to severe generalized skin disease (mange). We investigated the spread and dynamics of sarcoptic mange in one of the best preserved carnivore(More)
European bison (Bison bonasus), after extinction in the wild at the beginning of twentieth century, were reintroduced in over 30 free-ranging populations in central and eastern Europe. Major threats to this species include disease and parasites. In the last decades, the highly pathogenic blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi (Trichostrongylidae) has(More)
We investigated the pattern of parasite egg shedding by European bison (Bison bonasus) in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. We found several groups of parasite eggs in bison faeces including Trichostrongylidae, Nematodirus spp., Aonchotheca sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia spp. Trichostrongylidae eggs were expelled from bison at the highest percentage (27.8 %)(More)