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Neuroinflammation is a key element in the ischemic cascade after cerebral ischemia that results in cell damage and death in the subacute phase. However, anti-inflammatory drugs do not improve outcome in clinical settings suggesting that the neuroinflammatory response after an ischemic stroke is not entirely detrimental. This review describes the different(More)
Excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), a member of the high-affinity Na+/K+-dependent glutamate transporter family, is highly enriched in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, although it is not restricted to these cells. The detailed expression of EAAT4 protein in different adult rat fore- and midbrain regions was examined. Despite moderate expression(More)
Evidence accumulates for a key role of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptors in the many homeostatic and neuroprotective functions of astrocytes, including glycogen metabolism, regulation of immune responses, release of neurotrophic factors, and the astrogliosis that occurs in response to neuronal injury. A dysregulation of the astrocytic(More)
A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent(More)
For successful translation to clinical stroke studies, the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Round Table criteria have been proposed. Two important criteria are testing of therapeutic interventions in conscious animals and the presence of a co-morbidity factor. We chose to work with hypertensive rats since hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor(More)
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is best known for its role in the regulation of lactation. Recent evidence furthermore indicates PRL is required for normal reproduction in rodents. Here, we report on the insertion of two transposon-like DNA sequences in the human prolactin gene, which together function as an alternative promoter directing(More)
Neuroinflammation can lead to either damage of astrocytes or astrogliosis. Astrocyte loss may be caused by cytotoxic T cells as seen in Rasmussen encephalitis, auto-antibodies such as in neuromyelitis optica (aquaporin-4 antibodies), or cytokines such as TNF-α in major depressive disorder. Interleukins-1 and -6 appear to be important molecular mediators of(More)
To address the role of different intracellular signals in prolactin (PRL) expression in leukocytes, we have investigated the effects of chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cptcAMP), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin on the activation of the upstream PRL promoter in several leukemic cell lines. All three stimulators, alone or in synergism with each other,(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been described as an important factor in proliferation, cell survival and migration of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Angiogenesis correlates with development and prognosis of the MM disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the prominent factors involved in this process. The different functions of(More)