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Most human tumours have genetic mutations in their Rb and p53 pathways, but retinoblastoma is thought to be an exception. Studies suggest that retinoblastomas, which initiate with mutations in the gene retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), bypass the p53 pathway because they arise from intrinsically death-resistant cells during retinal development. In contrast to this(More)
Vertebrate members of the nuclear receptor NR5A subfamily, which includes steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1), regulate crucial aspects of development, endocrine homeostasis, and metabolism. Mouse LRH-1 is believed to be a ligand-independent transcription factor with a large and empty hydrophobic pocket. Here we present(More)
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a disease that is responsible for 880,000 deaths per year worldwide. Vaccine development has proved difficult and resistance has emerged for most antimalarial drugs. To discover new antimalarial chemotypes, we have used a phenotypic forward chemical genetic approach to assay 309,474 chemicals. Here we disclose(More)
Covalent labeling has been widely used for structural and functional analyses of proteins. To target a wide range of PDZ domains, we designed a chemical scaffold mimicking the E/D-T/S-XV peptide, which is a PDZ domain that binds ligands in higher occurrence. A chemical probe (2) that contained this moiety alkylated diverse PDZ domains, including NHERF-1(More)
The need to discover and develop new antimalarial therapeutics is overwhelming. The annual mortality attributed to malaria, currently approximately 2.5 million, is increasing due primarily to widespread resistance to currently used drugs. One strategy to identify new treatment alternatives for malaria is to examine libraries of diverse compounds for the(More)
Glucocorticoids are universally used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and resistance to glucocorticoids in leukemia cells confers poor prognosis. To elucidate mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance, we determined the prednisolone sensitivity of primary leukemia cells from 444 patients newly diagnosed with ALL and found significantly(More)
Taxol, a substance originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) more than two decades ago, has recently been approved for the clinical treatment of cancer patients. Hailed as having provided one of the most significant advances in cancer therapy, this molecule exerts its anticancer activity by inhibiting mitosis through enhancement of(More)
Drug discovery for malaria has been transformed in the last 5 years by the discovery of many new lead compounds identified by phenotypic screening. The process of developing these compounds as drug leads and studying the cellular responses they induce is revealing new targets that regulate key processes in the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. We(More)
A simple two-step synthesis method was used to make 51 B-ring-substituted 4-hydroxyquinolines allowing analysis of the effect of ring substitutions on inhibition of growth of chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the dominant cause of malaria morbidity. Substituted quinoline rings other than the 7-chloroquinoline ring found(More)
Due to growing problems with drug resistance, there is an outstanding need for new, cost-effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. The 4-aminoquinolines have provided a number of useful antimalarials, and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative organism for the most deadly form of human malaria, is generally slow to develop resistance to these drugs.(More)