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Exposure to stressors that are not controlled results in a variety of changes in behavior and in brain chemistry. Among these is the activation of dopamine-containing neuronal systems projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), to a lesser extent the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and, in a few studies, the striatum. Previous data have shown that stressor(More)
Ibogaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, has been claimed to be effective in treating addiction to opioid and stimulant drugs and has been reported to decrease morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats. The present study sought to determine if other iboga alkaloids, as well as the chemically related harmala alkaloid harmaline, would also reduce the(More)
Exposure to various mild stressors has been shown to result in the activation of dopamine containing neuronal systems projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), to a lesser extent the nucleus accumbens septi/olfactory tubercle (NAS) and, in a few studies, the striatum. It has also been shown that dopamine (DA) systems on different sides of the PFC(More)
In this study, we have examined the spontaneous efflux and stimulation-induced overflow of endogenous dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) from striatal slices prepared from adult rats. Partial destruction of striatal DA terminals with 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the electrically evoked overflow of DA and DOPAC, but by less than the DA(More)
The release of endogenous norepinephrine in hippocampus was studied in freely moving rats with microdialysis perfusion. Using a loop-style dialysis probe, the basal amount of norepinephrine collected in 15-min fractions averaged 12 pg/25 microliters. Correcting for recovery (21%), the concentration of norepinephrine in the extracellular fluid of hippocampus(More)
Ibogaine, an indolalkylamine, has been claimed to be effective in abolishing drug craving in heroin and cocaine addicts. The present study used in vivo microdialysis to determine the effects of ibogaine on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites and the effects of ibogaine pretreatment on morphine stimulation of brain DA systems. Acutely,(More)
Norepinephrine has a strongly lateralized distribution in the human thalamus. In the pulvinar region the left hemisphere is rich in norepinephrine, whereas in the somatosensory input area the right hemisphere has a higher concentration of this catecholamine. Such naturally occurring left-right differences in concentration of a neurotransmitter represent a(More)
A myotropic peptide, named orcokinin, was isolated from approximately 1200 abdominal nerve cords of the crayfish, Orconectes limosus. Its amino acid sequence was determined as follows: Asn-Phe-Asp-Glu-Ile-Asp-Arg-Ser-Gly-Phe-Gly-Phe-Asn. This structure was confirmed by synthesis. There is no sequence similarity to any known neuropeptide. Orcokinin exhibits(More)
It is common practice in microdialysis studies for probes to be "calibrated" in artificial CSF and in vitro recoveries determined for all substances to be measured in vivo. Dialysate concentrations of such substances are then "corrected" for in vitro recoveries to provide "estimates" of extracellular concentrations. At least for dopamine, in vitro and in(More)
Inhibitors of cell-swelling-activated anion channels, including the antiestrogenic compound tamoxifen (TAM), have been shown to attenuate the increase in excitatory amino acids (EAA) during ischemia. Since TAM enters the CNS we tested whether it provides protection from damage due to reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (rMCAo) in rats. TAM (5 mg/kg,(More)